Tem (AOS), respectively, with inputs converging in the medial amygdala (Me). The Me in turn targets the mesolimbic dopamine CXCR Antagonist Accession program, such as the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), the ventral pallidum (VP), medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) and ventral tegmental location (VTA). We hypothesized that pheromone-induced dopamine (DA) release in the ventral striatum (especially in the mAcb and mOT) might mediate the normal preference of female mice to investigate male pheromones. We produced bilateral 6-OHDA lesions of DA fibers innervating either the mAcb alone or the mAcb +mOT in female mice and tested IKK-β Inhibitor supplier estrous females’ preference for opposite-sex urinary odors. We found that 6-OHDA lesions of either the mAcb alone or the mAcb+mOT substantially reduced the preference of sexually na e female mice to investigate breeding male urinary odors (volatiles too as volatiles+nonvolatiles) vs. estrous female urinary odors. These very same neurotoxic lesions had no impact on subjects’ capability to discriminate between these two urinary odors, on their locomotor activity, or on their preference for consuming sucrose. The integrity in the dopaminergic innervation on the mAcb and mOT is necessary for female mice to choose investigating male pheromones.Key phrases Dopamine; sociosexual behavior; olfactory; nucleus accumbens; olfactory tubercle?2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Corresponding author at: Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, Usa. Tel.: +1 617 353 3254, [email protected] (J.A. Cherry). Publisher’s Disclaimer: This can be a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our consumers we’re giving this early version with the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and assessment from the resulting proof prior to it’s published in its final citable type. Please note that during the production procedure errors could be found which could a3ect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.DiBenedictis et al.PageThe display of courtship behaviors in female rodents depends upon the perception of chemical cues released by male conspecifics . These salient chemosignals (usually referred to as pheromones) are detected by the key (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) and relayed to the medial amygdala (Me). The Me is important for odor-guided courtship and reproductive behaviors in female rodents [2?]. It sends axonal projections to various downstream targets such as the bed nucleus from the stria terminalis (BNST), the medial preoptic region (MPA), ventromedial (VMHvm), and ventrolateral (VMHvl) divisions in the ventromedial hypothalamus, and to many ventral striatal targets, which includes the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), ventral pallidum (VP), medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) and islands of Calleja (ICj) [5?]. Female mice show a hardwired attraction to and preference for male urinary odors . We hypothesized that the saliency attributed to these odors arises from pheromone-induced activation in the mesolimbic dopamine `reward’ method, yet little is recognized in regards to the neural pathways via which pheromonal stimuli access the mesolimbic dopamine program. Male and female mice will kind a conditioned location preference for opposite-sex urinary odors [9,10], suggesting that these odors are rewarding. Additionally, instant early gene research have shown that opposite-sex (but not same-sex) consp.