Trajectory curve and linear regression for the eigengene. (F) The coexpression network for module yellow.Frontiers in Veterinary Science | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2021 | Volume 8 | ArticleLiu et al.Network for E. tenella Infected ChickenFIGURE four | The Functions for genes in magenta module. (A) The dotplot of leading 11 BPs. (B) The concept network of top 11 BPs. (C) The trajectory curve and linear regression for the eigengene. (D) The coexpression network for module magenta.Na+/H+ Exchanger (NHE) Inhibitor custom synthesis regulation (21). Hamzifound that tryptophan deprivation c inhibits Toxoplasma gondii replication and may possibly be involved in the innate immune D4 Receptor Source response to E. maxima infection (22, 23). It was reported that tyrosine is really a precursor to dopamine, catecholamine, and melanin production, in which dopamine is really a neurotransmitter involving within the regulation on the immune response (21). Phenylalanine engaged inside the regulation of nitricoxide (NO) synthesis (24) indirectly, and NO plays several roles relating for the immune response which can regulate the cytokine production, and killing pathogens (25). Within this study, the expression of genes decreased substantially together with the primary infection over time (Figure 3C) which indicated that it was inhibited for the E. tenella by initializing the host innate immune response. Genes inside the magenta module had been involved inside the immune response, defense response and actin filaments de/polymerization. It’s well-known that protozoan parasite infections can trigger a severe intestinal mucosal immune response (22, 23). This can be in line together with the upregulated expressionof genes within the magenta module beneath the key challenge (Figure 4B). There are some significant hub genes in this module for example IFNG, IRF1, and CAPZA1. IFNG encodes a soluble cytokine that is certainly a member on the variety II interferon class. The encoded protein is secreted by cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The production of IFNG is really a homodimer that binds towards the interferon gamma receptor and is thought of as pivotal for triggering effector mechanisms against Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium, and Eimeria infections (26) and can inhibit the replication of parasites (27). IRF1 is interferon regulatory factor 1 and protein encoded by this gene can be a transcriptional regulator and tumor suppressor, serving as an activator of genes involved in each innate and acquired immune responses. The encoded protein activates the transcription of genes involved within the body’s response to viruses and bacteria, playing a function in cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, and DNA harm response (28). CAPZA1 is really a capping actin protein of muscle Z-line alpha subunit 1 which encodes the subunit of F-actin capping protein (29) andFrontiers in Veterinary Science | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2021 | Volume 8 | ArticleLiu et al.Network for E. tenella Infected ChickenFIGURE five | Module preservation analysis. (A) Modules preserved in E. acervulina. (B) Modules preserved in E. maxima.regulates actin polymerization and cell motility through binding for the barbed ends of actin filaments (30, 31). Within the present study, all these hub genes upregulated soon after the key infection, which indicates that the immune responses are activated. Working with the identical gene expression dataset, we examined no matter if the coexpression network structure of modules identified in E. tenella infected chickens might be preserved in E. acervulina or E. maxima infected chickens. The highly preserved modules are mostly involved in RNA.