Trajectory curve and linear regression for the eigengene. (F) The coexpression network for module yellow.Frontiers in Veterinary Science | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2021 | Volume 8 | ArticleLiu et al.Network for E. tenella Infected ChickenFIGURE 4 | The Functions for genes in magenta module. (A) The dotplot of prime 11 BPs. (B) The notion network of major 11 BPs. (C) The trajectory curve and linear regression for the eigengene. (D) The coexpression network for module magenta.regulation (21). Hamzifound that tryptophan deprivation c inhibits Toxoplasma gondii replication and may well be involved within the innate immune response to E. maxima infection (22, 23). It was reported that tyrosine can be a precursor to dopamine, catecholamine, and melanin production, in which dopamine is a neurotransmitter involving within the regulation with the immune response (21). Phenylalanine engaged within the regulation of nitricoxide (NO) synthesis (24) indirectly, and NO plays several roles relating to the immune response which can regulate the cytokine production, and killing pathogens (25). In this study, the expression of genes decreased significantly with the main infection over time (Figure 3C) which indicated that it was inhibited for the E. tenella by initializing the host innate immune response. Genes inside the magenta module were involved within the immune response, defense response and actin HDAC7 review filaments de/polymerization. It is actually well-known that protozoan parasite infections can trigger a extreme intestinal mucosal immune response (22, 23). This is in line with the upregulated expressionof genes in the magenta module under the major challenge (Figure 4B). There are actually some significant hub genes in this module such as IFNG, IRF1, and CAPZA1. IFNG Free Fatty Acid Receptor Activator web encodes a soluble cytokine that is a member on the type II interferon class. The encoded protein is secreted by cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The production of IFNG is actually a homodimer that binds towards the interferon gamma receptor and is considered as pivotal for triggering effector mechanisms against Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium, and Eimeria infections (26) and can inhibit the replication of parasites (27). IRF1 is interferon regulatory factor 1 and protein encoded by this gene is often a transcriptional regulator and tumor suppressor, serving as an activator of genes involved in both innate and acquired immune responses. The encoded protein activates the transcription of genes involved inside the body’s response to viruses and bacteria, playing a part in cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, and DNA damage response (28). CAPZA1 is usually a capping actin protein of muscle Z-line alpha subunit 1 which encodes the subunit of F-actin capping protein (29) andFrontiers in Veterinary Science | www.frontiersin.orgJuly 2021 | Volume 8 | ArticleLiu et al.Network for E. tenella Infected ChickenFIGURE five | Module preservation analysis. (A) Modules preserved in E. acervulina. (B) Modules preserved in E. maxima.regulates actin polymerization and cell motility through binding to the barbed ends of actin filaments (30, 31). In the present study, all these hub genes upregulated after the major infection, which indicates that the immune responses are activated. Making use of the exact same gene expression dataset, we examined whether or not the coexpression network structure of modules identified in E. tenella infected chickens could be preserved in E. acervulina or E. maxima infected chickens. The very preserved modules are primarily involved in RNA.