Ransport, among other individuals). For principal isolated human cardiomyocytes, which haven’t been cultured in vitro, and principal cultured human cardiac fibroblasts, we utilized the FANTOM5 PLD Purity & Documentation expression atlas32 and selected 10 tags per million as the expression threshold, which has been validated previously.29 We deemed ligand-receptor pairs as potentially autocrine when each ligand and receptor met the 10 tags per million threshold and when the ratio of both was 20 in each directions, because we assumed that when either the ligand or receptor displays a much higher expression than the other, autocrine signaling is much less most likely. In this manner, we identified 257 potentially autocrine ligand-receptor pairs in cardiomyocytes and 326 in cardiac fibroblasts (Information S1). For cardiac PARP2 Storage & Stability endothelial cells, we used two RNAsequencing experiments previously performed in our laboratory: a single on freshly isolated rat cardiac endothelial cells30 and an additional on cultured human cardiac endothelial cells.31 In this manner, we identified 272 potentially autocrine ligand-receptor pairs in rat cardiac endothelial cells in vivo and 286 in human cultured cardiac endothelial cells in vitro (Information S1). There is substantial overlap in between freshly isolated rat cardiac endothelial cells and cultured human cardiac endothelial cells, but naturally you can find also differences since they are derived from distinctive species and, extra crucial, due to the fact in vitro culture of cells induces substantial phenotypic alterations. To provide the reader using a common overview of potentially autocrine ligand-receptor pairs, we present a collection of them in Table 1 and Tables S1 and S2; only ligand-receptor pairs are shown for which the main function with the ligand is intercellular signaling (these consist of signaling molecules, cytokines, growth elements, and chemokines). Table S1 shows potentially autocrine ligand-receptor pairs of isolated human cardiomyocytes, Table 1 of freshly isolated rat cardiac endothelial cells, and Table S2 of cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. The ligand-receptor pairs in which the ligand includes a distinct principal function (eg, structural proteins or proteases) could be identified in Information S1. A 1st conclusion that may be drawn from these data is the fact that cardiomyocytes express significantly less ligand-receptor pairs (79 pairs), using a key function in intercellular signaling, than endothelial cells (124 pairs) or fibroblasts (131 pairs). Cardiomyocytes appear to be significantly less talkative, which can be not surprising thinking about their muscular function, than the other two cell forms, because they express 36 ligands, which meet the expression threshold, compared with 66 ligands expressed by endothelial cells and 54 ligands expressed by fibroblasts. Extra surprising is the fact that 22 (in the 36 ligands expressed by cardiomyocytes) are expressed by all 3 cell varieties (Table two) and thatJ Am Heart Assoc. 2021;10:e019169. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.Segers et alAutocrine Signaling within the HeartTable 1. Autocrine Ligand-Receptor Pairs Expressed by Isolated Rat Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial CellsGene Pair ADM_CALCRL ADM_GPR182 ADM_RAMP2 ANGPT2_TEK ANGPT2_TIE1 ANGPTL4_TIE1 ANXA1_DYSF APLN_ APLNR BMP2_ ACVR1 BMP2_ ACVR2A BMP2_ ACVR2B BMP2_BMPR2 BMP4_ ACVR1 BMP4_ ACVR2A BMP4_ ACVR2B BMP4_BMPR2 CCL5_SDC1 CCL5_SDC4 CTGF_ITGA5 CTGF_LRP1 CTGF_LRP6 CXCL10_SDC4 CXCL12_ ACKR3 CXCL12_CXCR4 CXCL12_ITGB1 CYR61_CAV1 Cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61 Desert hedgehog Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor two -like 1 -like 4 Growth diverse.