He observed functional differences could be due to differences in knockdown

He observed functional differences could be due to differences in knockdown efficiency between the dnm2 and dnm2-like morphants. Alternatively, genespecific functional differences could exist. Future gene-specific targeting and mutant DNM2 studies addressing the detailed mechanisms responsible for the observed histological and functional deficits in morphant zebrafish are warranted to comprehend the exact role these proteins are playing in muscle development and function. For example, 478-01-3 site activity-deficient DNM2 mutants could be employed to assess the contribution of enzymatic activity on endocytosis and muscle structure and function. Electrophysiological studies may also provide insight into the correlation of the observed morphological defects with functional outcomes. Finally, studies assessing potential disease-causing mechanisms may be required to understand the role of DNM2 in disease. Endocytosis and autophagy defects, altered oligomerization, abnormalities in muscle membrane structure development and maintenance, and effects at the neuromuscular junction are all important mechanisms [29,30,34,35] to consider and investigate to determine how DNM2 contributes to neuromuscular disorders. Taken together, our findings show that dnm2 and dnm2-like are highly conserved orthologs to human DNM2 are independently required for normal embryonic development in the zebrafish. It will be important to further examine these two genes in order to understand their specific cellular function in the zebrafish. The zebrafish provides an excellent system for examining aspects of membrane trafficking in vivo, and understanding the zebrafish dynamin-2 homologs will allow a more precise analysis of these pathways.Supporting InformationFigure SZebrafish dnm2 whole mount in situ hybridization. (A) Whole mount in situ of 1 dpf embryos reveals ubiquitous expression of dnm2. (B) Sense probe to dnm2 was used as a background control. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Angela Busta for expert zebrafish care and maintenance. We also thank Dr. Chi-Bin Chien for kindly providing the Tol2kit constructs.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EMG JJD ELF. Performed the experiments: EMG AED AT-G CB YH. Analyzed the data: EMG AED SAS JJD ELF. Wrote the paper: EMG SAS JJD ELF.Dynamin-2 and Zebrafish Development
Scar, the inevitable complication of wound healing, often incurs excessive proliferation of 18325633 fibrous tissue with the potential to result in deformity of appearance, paraesthesia, and even organ dysfunctions, leading to significant psychological diseases for burn survivors. Hypertrophic scars may result from abnormal fibrous wound healing that has exhibited reduced or absent tissue repairment and regeneration regulating mechanisms. Resultant imbalance between these factors and subsequent excessive accumulation of TA01 biological activity collagen may lead to tissue fibrosis, a condition that may enhance production and deposition or, alternatively, impair degradation and removal of collagen. Few effectivetherapies have been under contemporary research due to the poorly defined mechanism of scar formation [1]. The TGF-b mediated signaling pathway is believed to be closely associated with wound healing and scar formation [2]. Previous researches have shown that TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor types of I and II, and Smad3 are all highly expressed in pathological scar tissue, indicative of a close relationship between TGF-b signal transduction and scar tissue proliferatio.He observed functional differences could be due to differences in knockdown efficiency between the dnm2 and dnm2-like morphants. Alternatively, genespecific functional differences could exist. Future gene-specific targeting and mutant DNM2 studies addressing the detailed mechanisms responsible for the observed histological and functional deficits in morphant zebrafish are warranted to comprehend the exact role these proteins are playing in muscle development and function. For example, activity-deficient DNM2 mutants could be employed to assess the contribution of enzymatic activity on endocytosis and muscle structure and function. Electrophysiological studies may also provide insight into the correlation of the observed morphological defects with functional outcomes. Finally, studies assessing potential disease-causing mechanisms may be required to understand the role of DNM2 in disease. Endocytosis and autophagy defects, altered oligomerization, abnormalities in muscle membrane structure development and maintenance, and effects at the neuromuscular junction are all important mechanisms [29,30,34,35] to consider and investigate to determine how DNM2 contributes to neuromuscular disorders. Taken together, our findings show that dnm2 and dnm2-like are highly conserved orthologs to human DNM2 are independently required for normal embryonic development in the zebrafish. It will be important to further examine these two genes in order to understand their specific cellular function in the zebrafish. The zebrafish provides an excellent system for examining aspects of membrane trafficking in vivo, and understanding the zebrafish dynamin-2 homologs will allow a more precise analysis of these pathways.Supporting InformationFigure SZebrafish dnm2 whole mount in situ hybridization. (A) Whole mount in situ of 1 dpf embryos reveals ubiquitous expression of dnm2. (B) Sense probe to dnm2 was used as a background control. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Angela Busta for expert zebrafish care and maintenance. We also thank Dr. Chi-Bin Chien for kindly providing the Tol2kit constructs.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EMG JJD ELF. Performed the experiments: EMG AED AT-G CB YH. Analyzed the data: EMG AED SAS JJD ELF. Wrote the paper: EMG SAS JJD ELF.Dynamin-2 and Zebrafish Development
Scar, the inevitable complication of wound healing, often incurs excessive proliferation of 18325633 fibrous tissue with the potential to result in deformity of appearance, paraesthesia, and even organ dysfunctions, leading to significant psychological diseases for burn survivors. Hypertrophic scars may result from abnormal fibrous wound healing that has exhibited reduced or absent tissue repairment and regeneration regulating mechanisms. Resultant imbalance between these factors and subsequent excessive accumulation of collagen may lead to tissue fibrosis, a condition that may enhance production and deposition or, alternatively, impair degradation and removal of collagen. Few effectivetherapies have been under contemporary research due to the poorly defined mechanism of scar formation [1]. The TGF-b mediated signaling pathway is believed to be closely associated with wound healing and scar formation [2]. Previous researches have shown that TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor types of I and II, and Smad3 are all highly expressed in pathological scar tissue, indicative of a close relationship between TGF-b signal transduction and scar tissue proliferatio.

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