En, Madison, WI) were used for cloning and expression, respectively. E.

En, Madison, WI) were used for cloning and expression, respectively. E. coli were grown in LuriaBertani (LB) broth or on agar plates with 50 mg/ml carbenicillin, 12.5 mg/ml tetracycline, 34 mg/ml chloramphenicol, 40 mg/ml kanamycin or 40 mg/mlspectinomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) when appropriate.Gel electrophoresis, antibodies and immunoblottingProtein samples were boiled for 5 min in Novex NuPage sample buffer (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) in the presence of 2.5 b-mercapthoethanol and separated through Bis-Tris 4?2 polyacrylamide gradient NuPage gels using the Novex XCell Sure Lock 11089-65-9 custom synthesis electrophoresis cell (Life Technologies). The polyclonal rabbit sera specific for the following proteins are described elsewhere: FlaA2 [18], OmpL37, OmpL47, OmpL54 [21], LipL31 [12], OmpL1 [22], LipL41 [23], and LipL32 [17]. LipL32 monoclonal antibody 1D9 [24,25] was a kind gift from Dr. Jose Antonio Guimaraes Aleixo (Universidade Federal De Pelotas, ? Pelotas, Brazil). Patient sera from leptospirosis outbreaks in 1996 and 1997 in Salvador, Brazil, were kindly provided by Dr. Albert I. Ko (Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT). Leptospirosis patient serum samples were prepared by pooling convalescent sera from 23 individuals with laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis. Normal human serum (ImmunoPure) was obtained from Thermo Scientific (Rockford, IL). For immunoblotting, proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore, Billerica, MA) and probed with rabbit polyclonal antisera or LipL32 antibodies affinity-purified from leptospirosis patient sera. Bound antibodies were detected using 58-49-1 horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (GE Lifesciences, BuckinghamCell surface proteolysis of intact Leptospira cellsL. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 23977191 was grown to the density of 2?66108 cells/ml and harvested by low-speed centrifugation at 2,0006 g for 7 min at room temperature. Assessment of surface exposure of leptospiral proteins on intact cells was performed by Proteinase K treatment as previously described [21]. To evaluate the capability of Proteinase K to digest LipL32, cell lysates were prepared by solubilizing leptospires in 50 mM Tris-HCL (pH 8.0), 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0.2 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 23727046 boiled for 5 min. Proteinase K was added directly to the cell lysates and performed as previously described [21] with an exception that the centrifugation and washing steps were omitted.Surface immuno-fluorescence (IFA) assayL. interrogans cultures at densities of 26108 to 56108 cells/ml were harvested by low-speed centrifugation at 2,0006 g for 7 min at room temperature and surface exposure of proteins was done by IFA as previously described [21,27]. As controls to demonstrate antibody recognition of subsurface proteins, additionalLipL32 Is a Subsurface Lipoprotein of LeptospiraFigure 1. Surface localization of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 proteins by protease K treatment. (A) Whole intact spirochetes were incubated with different concentrations of Proteinase K. 16108 of leptospires per lane were separated by gel electrophoresis (Bis-Tris 4?2 NuPage gel, Novex), transferred to a PVDF membrane, and probed with polyclonal rabbit antisera against: LipL32, OmpL47, OmpL37, FlaA2 and LipL31. (B) Whole intact leptospires and cells lysed with 50 mM Tris-HCL (pH 8.0), 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 0.2 SDS and boiling for 5 m.En, Madison, WI) were used for cloning and expression, respectively. E. coli were grown in LuriaBertani (LB) broth or on agar plates with 50 mg/ml carbenicillin, 12.5 mg/ml tetracycline, 34 mg/ml chloramphenicol, 40 mg/ml kanamycin or 40 mg/mlspectinomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) when appropriate.Gel electrophoresis, antibodies and immunoblottingProtein samples were boiled for 5 min in Novex NuPage sample buffer (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) in the presence of 2.5 b-mercapthoethanol and separated through Bis-Tris 4?2 polyacrylamide gradient NuPage gels using the Novex XCell Sure Lock electrophoresis cell (Life Technologies). The polyclonal rabbit sera specific for the following proteins are described elsewhere: FlaA2 [18], OmpL37, OmpL47, OmpL54 [21], LipL31 [12], OmpL1 [22], LipL41 [23], and LipL32 [17]. LipL32 monoclonal antibody 1D9 [24,25] was a kind gift from Dr. Jose Antonio Guimaraes Aleixo (Universidade Federal De Pelotas, ? Pelotas, Brazil). Patient sera from leptospirosis outbreaks in 1996 and 1997 in Salvador, Brazil, were kindly provided by Dr. Albert I. Ko (Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT). Leptospirosis patient serum samples were prepared by pooling convalescent sera from 23 individuals with laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis. Normal human serum (ImmunoPure) was obtained from Thermo Scientific (Rockford, IL). For immunoblotting, proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore, Billerica, MA) and probed with rabbit polyclonal antisera or LipL32 antibodies affinity-purified from leptospirosis patient sera. Bound antibodies were detected using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (GE Lifesciences, BuckinghamCell surface proteolysis of intact Leptospira cellsL. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 23977191 was grown to the density of 2?66108 cells/ml and harvested by low-speed centrifugation at 2,0006 g for 7 min at room temperature. Assessment of surface exposure of leptospiral proteins on intact cells was performed by Proteinase K treatment as previously described [21]. To evaluate the capability of Proteinase K to digest LipL32, cell lysates were prepared by solubilizing leptospires in 50 mM Tris-HCL (pH 8.0), 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0.2 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 23727046 boiled for 5 min. Proteinase K was added directly to the cell lysates and performed as previously described [21] with an exception that the centrifugation and washing steps were omitted.Surface immuno-fluorescence (IFA) assayL. interrogans cultures at densities of 26108 to 56108 cells/ml were harvested by low-speed centrifugation at 2,0006 g for 7 min at room temperature and surface exposure of proteins was done by IFA as previously described [21,27]. As controls to demonstrate antibody recognition of subsurface proteins, additionalLipL32 Is a Subsurface Lipoprotein of LeptospiraFigure 1. Surface localization of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 proteins by protease K treatment. (A) Whole intact spirochetes were incubated with different concentrations of Proteinase K. 16108 of leptospires per lane were separated by gel electrophoresis (Bis-Tris 4?2 NuPage gel, Novex), transferred to a PVDF membrane, and probed with polyclonal rabbit antisera against: LipL32, OmpL47, OmpL37, FlaA2 and LipL31. (B) Whole intact leptospires and cells lysed with 50 mM Tris-HCL (pH 8.0), 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 0.2 SDS and boiling for 5 m.

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