Reased interaction of FHL2 with integrins [18,51] which are also critical for

Reased interaction of FHL2 with integrins [18,51] which are also critical for cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, migration and invasion. In summary, we show here for the first time that the expression of the Wnt co-regulator FHL2 is high in invasive osteosarcoma and that FHL2 acts as an oncoprotein in osteosarcoma cells. More importantly, we demonstrate that silencing FHL2 represses osteosarcoma cell growth and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.Overall, the data indicate that targeting FHL2, a Wnt activator in osteosarcoma cells, may be useful for therapeutical intervention in this type of cancer.Materials and Methods Cell Culture and 548-04-9 site TransductionThe cancer cells derived from different osteosarcoma tumors used were p53-deficient SaOS2 human cells, p53 mutant MG63 human cells, HOS and U2OS human cells, and K7M2 murineFHL2 Silencing Reduces Osteosarcoma TumorigenesisFigure 6. FHL2 silencing reduces lung metastasis in mice. Histological hematoxylin/eosin (H E) staining of lung tissue sections showing metastasis (stars) developed in mice injected IM with shControl or shFHL2-transduced K7M2 cells (A). Metastasis area (B) and number (C) in the lung tissue were evaluated. Results are expressed as mean 6 s.d. (n = 9 animals per group). *P,0.05 vs shControl. Proposed model in which FHL2 silencing using shFHL2 in murine osteosarcoma cells attenuates Wnt/b-catenin signaling and reduces the expression of Wnt5a and Wnt10b and possibly other FHL2 target genes in the tumors, resulting in decreased osteosarcoma cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenesis in vivo (D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055034.gosteosarcoma cells [27], all obtained from ATCC (Rockville, MD, USA). Normal human osteoblasts (IHNC) were obtained from human neonatal calvaria, and murine C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3E1 cells were from ATCC. The cells were cultured in DMEM (Invitrogen Corporation, Paisley, Scotland) in the presence of 10 heat inactivated FCS, 1 L-glutamine and penicillin/streptomy-cin (10,000 U/ml and 10,000 mg/ml, respectively) with medium change every 2? days. For FHL2 silencing, lentiviral particules containing shRNA directed against mouse FHL2 or a control shRNA that does not recognize mouse FHL2 were used according to the manufacturer recommendations (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA).FHL2 Silencing Reduces Osteosarcoma TumorigenesisCell Proliferation 3-Bromopyruvic acid AssayFor cell proliferation assay, K7M2 cells were seeded at 36103 cells/cm2 and cell number was evaluated by cell counting. DNA replication was evaluated using a BrdU ELISA assay (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) as previously described [52]. Cells were treated with Wnt3a conditioned medium (CM) obtained as described previously [19] or human recombinant FGF-2 (Peprotech Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France) at the indicated time point.Cell Death AssaysDNA fragmentation was detected using TUNEL staining and effector caspases activity was determined using Ac-DEVD-pNA as substrate (Alexis Biochemicals, CA, USA) [53].actin (1/2000; Sigma-Aldrich, St Quentin Fallavier, France) or mouse anti-p84 (1/1000; Abcam) antibodies. Membranes were then incubated with appropriate HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1/20,000). The signals were visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence western blotting detection reagent (Immunstar chemiluminescent kit, BioRad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France) and autoradiographic film (X-OMAT-AR, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, USA). Densitometric analysis using QuantityOne software (BioRad) was performe.Reased interaction of FHL2 with integrins [18,51] which are also critical for cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, migration and invasion. In summary, we show here for the first time that the expression of the Wnt co-regulator FHL2 is high in invasive osteosarcoma and that FHL2 acts as an oncoprotein in osteosarcoma cells. More importantly, we demonstrate that silencing FHL2 represses osteosarcoma cell growth and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.Overall, the data indicate that targeting FHL2, a Wnt activator in osteosarcoma cells, may be useful for therapeutical intervention in this type of cancer.Materials and Methods Cell Culture and TransductionThe cancer cells derived from different osteosarcoma tumors used were p53-deficient SaOS2 human cells, p53 mutant MG63 human cells, HOS and U2OS human cells, and K7M2 murineFHL2 Silencing Reduces Osteosarcoma TumorigenesisFigure 6. FHL2 silencing reduces lung metastasis in mice. Histological hematoxylin/eosin (H E) staining of lung tissue sections showing metastasis (stars) developed in mice injected IM with shControl or shFHL2-transduced K7M2 cells (A). Metastasis area (B) and number (C) in the lung tissue were evaluated. Results are expressed as mean 6 s.d. (n = 9 animals per group). *P,0.05 vs shControl. Proposed model in which FHL2 silencing using shFHL2 in murine osteosarcoma cells attenuates Wnt/b-catenin signaling and reduces the expression of Wnt5a and Wnt10b and possibly other FHL2 target genes in the tumors, resulting in decreased osteosarcoma cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenesis in vivo (D). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055034.gosteosarcoma cells [27], all obtained from ATCC (Rockville, MD, USA). Normal human osteoblasts (IHNC) were obtained from human neonatal calvaria, and murine C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3E1 cells were from ATCC. The cells were cultured in DMEM (Invitrogen Corporation, Paisley, Scotland) in the presence of 10 heat inactivated FCS, 1 L-glutamine and penicillin/streptomy-cin (10,000 U/ml and 10,000 mg/ml, respectively) with medium change every 2? days. For FHL2 silencing, lentiviral particules containing shRNA directed against mouse FHL2 or a control shRNA that does not recognize mouse FHL2 were used according to the manufacturer recommendations (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA).FHL2 Silencing Reduces Osteosarcoma TumorigenesisCell Proliferation AssayFor cell proliferation assay, K7M2 cells were seeded at 36103 cells/cm2 and cell number was evaluated by cell counting. DNA replication was evaluated using a BrdU ELISA assay (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) as previously described [52]. Cells were treated with Wnt3a conditioned medium (CM) obtained as described previously [19] or human recombinant FGF-2 (Peprotech Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France) at the indicated time point.Cell Death AssaysDNA fragmentation was detected using TUNEL staining and effector caspases activity was determined using Ac-DEVD-pNA as substrate (Alexis Biochemicals, CA, USA) [53].actin (1/2000; Sigma-Aldrich, St Quentin Fallavier, France) or mouse anti-p84 (1/1000; Abcam) antibodies. Membranes were then incubated with appropriate HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1/20,000). The signals were visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence western blotting detection reagent (Immunstar chemiluminescent kit, BioRad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France) and autoradiographic film (X-OMAT-AR, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, USA). Densitometric analysis using QuantityOne software (BioRad) was performe.

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