Trypsinization. About 206103 cells (300 ml) containing 1 serum was seeded on the upper

Trypsinization. About 206103 cells (300 ml) containing 1 serum was seeded on the upper well of Boyden’s MedChemExpress Anlotinib chamber and the lower chamber was filled with 1.0 mL DMEM medium containing 1 serum. After incubation for 2 h, 5 mM of PEITC was added to upper compartment of the Boyden’s chamber while the medium in lower chamber was replaced with DMEM containing 10 FBS and 20 ng/ml of VEGF as chemoattractant. After incubation for 24 hours, cells from the upper chamber were removed by wiping with a cotton swab. The stained membranes were removed from the transwell and transferred into the individual wells of a 96-well plate and stained using 0.4 sulforhodamine B (SRB) solution in 1 acetic acid. The cells were fixed with 10 tricholoroacetic acid at 4uC for 1 hour and washed with 1 acetic acid solution. The SRB dye retained on the membrane was solubilized with 10 mM Tris buffer and the absorbance was read at 570 nm using a microplate reader (BioTek Instruments, Winooski, VT, USA). Assays were performed in triplicates and data was expressed as percent migration compared with control.Statistical AnalysisStatistical analysis was performed using Prism 5.0 (GraphPad software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Results were represented as means 6 SD or S.E.M. Data was analyzed by Student’s t-test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p,0.05.Enhanced Survival of Mice Bearing Metastatic Breast Tumors by PEITC TreatmentSince PEITC significantly reduced the metastasis and growth of metastatic tumors, we hypothesized that PEITC could prolong the survival of breast tumor bearing mice. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a survival study in mice that were bearing metastatic breast tumors in the brain. Mice were injected with MDA-MB-231 (BR) cells through intracardiac route. Fourteen days after tumor cell injection, PEITC treatment started in the treatment group while the other group was given vehicle under similar conditions and served as control. Treatment continued until all the control mice died and survival curve was plotted using Kaplan Meier’s analysis. Our results show that mice in control group started dying from day 39 onwards (Fig. 4). The median survival time of mice in control group was 41.5 days (Fig. 4). However, the survival of PEITC-treated mice was prolonged by 20.5 , with a median survival time of 50 days. Interestingly, not all the mice died in PEITC-treated group by the end of the experiment. These observations suggest that due to its anti-metastatic potential, PEITC could be helpful in protracting the survival of breast cancer patients.Results PEITC Reduces Brain Metastasis of Breast CancerIn most of the breast cancer patient’s brain is the major site for metastasis. We first wanted to see if PEITC can suppress the migration of breast cancer cells to brain. To address this question, MDA-MB-231 (BR) cells were tagged with quantum dots and then these cells were injected into the left ventricle of the heart of athymic nude mice, which were pretreated with 10 mmol PEITC by oral gavage for 10 days. Kinetics of the injected cells was monitored by non-invasive IVIS bio-imaging system. Tumor cells were lodged into the brain within 5?0 min of intra-cardiac injection, as indicated by luminescence. However, the signal in brain decreased gradually and eventually BTZ043 vanished by 5?0 days (Fig. 1B C). At day 10, mice were euthanized and brains were collected from control and treated groups. The 20 mm sections ofSuppression of Brain Metastasis.Trypsinization. About 206103 cells (300 ml) containing 1 serum was seeded on the upper well of Boyden’s chamber and the lower chamber was filled with 1.0 mL DMEM medium containing 1 serum. After incubation for 2 h, 5 mM of PEITC was added to upper compartment of the Boyden’s chamber while the medium in lower chamber was replaced with DMEM containing 10 FBS and 20 ng/ml of VEGF as chemoattractant. After incubation for 24 hours, cells from the upper chamber were removed by wiping with a cotton swab. The stained membranes were removed from the transwell and transferred into the individual wells of a 96-well plate and stained using 0.4 sulforhodamine B (SRB) solution in 1 acetic acid. The cells were fixed with 10 tricholoroacetic acid at 4uC for 1 hour and washed with 1 acetic acid solution. The SRB dye retained on the membrane was solubilized with 10 mM Tris buffer and the absorbance was read at 570 nm using a microplate reader (BioTek Instruments, Winooski, VT, USA). Assays were performed in triplicates and data was expressed as percent migration compared with control.Statistical AnalysisStatistical analysis was performed using Prism 5.0 (GraphPad software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Results were represented as means 6 SD or S.E.M. Data was analyzed by Student’s t-test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p,0.05.Enhanced Survival of Mice Bearing Metastatic Breast Tumors by PEITC TreatmentSince PEITC significantly reduced the metastasis and growth of metastatic tumors, we hypothesized that PEITC could prolong the survival of breast tumor bearing mice. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a survival study in mice that were bearing metastatic breast tumors in the brain. Mice were injected with MDA-MB-231 (BR) cells through intracardiac route. Fourteen days after tumor cell injection, PEITC treatment started in the treatment group while the other group was given vehicle under similar conditions and served as control. Treatment continued until all the control mice died and survival curve was plotted using Kaplan Meier’s analysis. Our results show that mice in control group started dying from day 39 onwards (Fig. 4). The median survival time of mice in control group was 41.5 days (Fig. 4). However, the survival of PEITC-treated mice was prolonged by 20.5 , with a median survival time of 50 days. Interestingly, not all the mice died in PEITC-treated group by the end of the experiment. These observations suggest that due to its anti-metastatic potential, PEITC could be helpful in protracting the survival of breast cancer patients.Results PEITC Reduces Brain Metastasis of Breast CancerIn most of the breast cancer patient’s brain is the major site for metastasis. We first wanted to see if PEITC can suppress the migration of breast cancer cells to brain. To address this question, MDA-MB-231 (BR) cells were tagged with quantum dots and then these cells were injected into the left ventricle of the heart of athymic nude mice, which were pretreated with 10 mmol PEITC by oral gavage for 10 days. Kinetics of the injected cells was monitored by non-invasive IVIS bio-imaging system. Tumor cells were lodged into the brain within 5?0 min of intra-cardiac injection, as indicated by luminescence. However, the signal in brain decreased gradually and eventually vanished by 5?0 days (Fig. 1B C). At day 10, mice were euthanized and brains were collected from control and treated groups. The 20 mm sections ofSuppression of Brain Metastasis.

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