Not observe any significant patterns in MuAstV mutations between the outbred

Not observe any significant patterns in MuAstV mutations between the outbred (ICR) or inbred derived (B6J) host strains. Since laboratory mice are bred from existing colonies with no or limited contact with wild mice, it is possible that the current MuAstV diversity in laboratory mice is the result of a single, or limited, incident of astrovirus infections in ancestral laboratory mouse populations that has survived undetected in research facilities. While very closely related to each other in the sequenced RdRP region (0? nucleotide divergence, Fig. 1C and D), the MuAstV sequences from laboratory mice differed from the two MedChemExpress Pentagastrin previously described wild MuAstV species described in Hungary by 26?3 and the mouse astrovirus (MoAsV) in USA by 43?5 . The three wild mouse astroviruses were highly distinct from one another differing in RdRP by 42?5 [37,43] (Fig. 1B and C). As was seen with the multiple astroviruses recently identified in other host species such as humans [44], pigs [45], and Californian sea lions [46] it is likely that yet more astrovirus species remain to be characterized in wild mice. The discovery of MuAstV in laboratory mice could have implications for research using mice, since as many as 9 strains of laboratory mice were positive for MuAstV in facilities in two countries and more than half of the institutes 16985061 or universities investigated in this study tested positive for MuAstV in some of their mice (Table 1 and 2). For those strains where larger sample size was tested, the prevalence of MuAstV ranged from 0 to 22 (Table 3). We therefore anticipate that other mice facilities are also contaminated with MuAstV. Although MuAstV infected immunodeficient mice showed no sign ofTable 1. PCR prevalence of MuAstV in US facilities in liver and feces samples.Sample Hosting facility BSRI StrainFeces Age (days) 211/246 533 # of Positive # of TestedLiver # of Positive 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 # of Tested 2 2 2 1 1 3BaLB/cJ CByJ.B6-Tg(UBC-GFP)30Sha/JC57BL/6-Tg-(UBC-GFP)30Sha/J 206/385 C57BL/6J C57BL6-Timp-32/2 NSG NSG-3GS uPA-NOG The Jackson Laboratory BaLB/cJ NSG NOD-SCID1 scid tm1Wjl68/411 129 45/116/242 92 199?45 (pooled) 44 37 37 1 0 1 1 1 1 1Strain abbreviations used: 23148522 NOD.Cg-Prkdc Il2rg Tg(CMV-IL3,CSF2,KITLG)1Eav/MloySzJ (NSG-3GS), NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG), NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1sug Tg(Alb-Plau)11-4/ShiJic (uPA-NOG), and NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J (NOD-SCID). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066937.tMurine Astrovirus in Laboratory MiceTable 2. PCR prevalence of MuAstV in Japanese facilities in cecum sample.Hosting facility Breeder AStrain B6J IQI mdx# of Positive# of Tested 8 14 2 8 5 12 10 2Percentage Positive 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 25 100 0 20 20 0 0 0 29 0 0 100 100 0 0 50 0 33 0 0 0 0 100 0 50 0 20 0 27 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 22 50Breeder BB6J BALB/c ICR NOD-scidBreeder CICR NOD-scidKDM5A-IN-1 Institute ABALB/c ICR9Institute BB6J BALB/c6B6J14 1Institute C Institute D Institute E Institute F Institute G Institute HICR ICR ICR ICR ICR B6J ICR 2 15 5 10 5 1 7 2Institute IB6J BALB/cInstitute J Institute K Institute L Institute M Pharmaceutical A Pharmaceutical B Pharmaceutical C Pharmaceutical EICR ICR ICR unknown ICR ICR BALB/c BALB/c ICR22 1 129 1 5 5University A University B University CICR ICR Bach2 Gfi1/CD4-cre ICR Menin 11 1 2University D University EICR B6J ICR PKA511University FICR unknown7 1 2 4 4University G University H University I University J University K University LICR ICR ICR ICR ICR BALB/c 29M.Not observe any significant patterns in MuAstV mutations between the outbred (ICR) or inbred derived (B6J) host strains. Since laboratory mice are bred from existing colonies with no or limited contact with wild mice, it is possible that the current MuAstV diversity in laboratory mice is the result of a single, or limited, incident of astrovirus infections in ancestral laboratory mouse populations that has survived undetected in research facilities. While very closely related to each other in the sequenced RdRP region (0? nucleotide divergence, Fig. 1C and D), the MuAstV sequences from laboratory mice differed from the two previously described wild MuAstV species described in Hungary by 26?3 and the mouse astrovirus (MoAsV) in USA by 43?5 . The three wild mouse astroviruses were highly distinct from one another differing in RdRP by 42?5 [37,43] (Fig. 1B and C). As was seen with the multiple astroviruses recently identified in other host species such as humans [44], pigs [45], and Californian sea lions [46] it is likely that yet more astrovirus species remain to be characterized in wild mice. The discovery of MuAstV in laboratory mice could have implications for research using mice, since as many as 9 strains of laboratory mice were positive for MuAstV in facilities in two countries and more than half of the institutes 16985061 or universities investigated in this study tested positive for MuAstV in some of their mice (Table 1 and 2). For those strains where larger sample size was tested, the prevalence of MuAstV ranged from 0 to 22 (Table 3). We therefore anticipate that other mice facilities are also contaminated with MuAstV. Although MuAstV infected immunodeficient mice showed no sign ofTable 1. PCR prevalence of MuAstV in US facilities in liver and feces samples.Sample Hosting facility BSRI StrainFeces Age (days) 211/246 533 # of Positive # of TestedLiver # of Positive 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 # of Tested 2 2 2 1 1 3BaLB/cJ CByJ.B6-Tg(UBC-GFP)30Sha/JC57BL/6-Tg-(UBC-GFP)30Sha/J 206/385 C57BL/6J C57BL6-Timp-32/2 NSG NSG-3GS uPA-NOG The Jackson Laboratory BaLB/cJ NSG NOD-SCID1 scid tm1Wjl68/411 129 45/116/242 92 199?45 (pooled) 44 37 37 1 0 1 1 1 1 1Strain abbreviations used: 23148522 NOD.Cg-Prkdc Il2rg Tg(CMV-IL3,CSF2,KITLG)1Eav/MloySzJ (NSG-3GS), NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG), NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1sug Tg(Alb-Plau)11-4/ShiJic (uPA-NOG), and NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J (NOD-SCID). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066937.tMurine Astrovirus in Laboratory MiceTable 2. PCR prevalence of MuAstV in Japanese facilities in cecum sample.Hosting facility Breeder AStrain B6J IQI mdx# of Positive# of Tested 8 14 2 8 5 12 10 2Percentage Positive 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 25 100 0 20 20 0 0 0 29 0 0 100 100 0 0 50 0 33 0 0 0 0 100 0 50 0 20 0 27 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 22 50Breeder BB6J BALB/c ICR NOD-scidBreeder CICR NOD-scidInstitute ABALB/c ICR9Institute BB6J BALB/c6B6J14 1Institute C Institute D Institute E Institute F Institute G Institute HICR ICR ICR ICR ICR B6J ICR 2 15 5 10 5 1 7 2Institute IB6J BALB/cInstitute J Institute K Institute L Institute M Pharmaceutical A Pharmaceutical B Pharmaceutical C Pharmaceutical EICR ICR ICR unknown ICR ICR BALB/c BALB/c ICR22 1 129 1 5 5University A University B University CICR ICR Bach2 Gfi1/CD4-cre ICR Menin 11 1 2University D University EICR B6J ICR PKA511University FICR unknown7 1 2 4 4University G University H University I University J University K University LICR ICR ICR ICR ICR BALB/c 29M.

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