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STAT is a family of cytoplasmic protein that regulates many aspects of growth, survival and differentiation in cells. The transcription factors of this family are activated by Janus kinase and dysregulation of this pathway is frequently observed in primary tumours and leads to increased angiogenesis, enhanced survival of tumours and immunosuppression. Gene knockout studies have provided evidence that STAT proteins are involved in the development and function of the immune system and play a role in maintaining immune tolerance and tumour surveillance. There are seven mammalian STAT family members that have been identified: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5 (STAT5A and STAT5B), and STAT6. STAT proteins were originally described as latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that require phosphorylation for nuclear retention. The unphosphorylated STAT proteins shuttle between cytosol and the nucleus waiting for its activation signal. Once the activated transcription factor reaches the nucleus, it binds to consensus DNA-recognition motif called gamma-activated sites (GAS) in the promoter region of cytokine-inducible genes and activates transcription of these genes.