I:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gFigure 3. Transduction of cd T cells with lentivirus

I:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gFigure 3. Transduction of cd T cells with lentivirus vector was performed on day 6, 7 and 8 of expansion culture (see text) with increasing MOI. (a) On day +14 cells were incubated in media supplemented with 400 mM TMZ and viable cell counts were obtained for each MOI. 1326631 Two separate experiments are shown. (b) Quantitative PCR analysis to measure P140KMGMT copy numbers of the bioengineered cd T cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of TMZ, which are indicated in the figure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gcombined additions of chemotherapy and genetically engineered immune effector cells [24]. We also showed that systemic administration of bioengineered chemotherapy-resistant hematopoietic cells has shown promise in animal models [23]. However, in the context of GBM therapy, systemic cell therapy will likely be an ineffective DRI Felypressin custom synthesis strategy for established tumors due to their highly immunosuppressive nature of the tumor and the difficulty of the immune cells to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, systemic therapies incorporating DRI may be useful when directed at microscopic post-resection GBM. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a DRI strategy to enhance GBM cell clearance by the combined additions of genetically engineered cd T cells with temozolomide to tumor cells that are refractory to high concentrations of the drug. Our choice to test a cd T cell mediated DRI strategy is based upon our previous finding that cd T cells, injected stereotactically either during intracranial transplantation or a few days after the transplantation of GBM cells in mice can extend the survival of the treated animals when compared to the survival of the tumor bearing animals that were not treated [35]. The exploitation of a cd T cell based DRI strategy to target GBM is a practical approach since the tumor is partially shielded from the immune system, thereby preventing the elucidation of an immune response against AKT inhibitor 2 web locally infused cells. A cd T cell based DRI strategy against GBM cells can provide several benefits compared to chemotherapy alone, as cytotoxic drugs can potentially augment the cytolytic properties of the expanded cd T cells. These cells express activating receptors for NKG2D family of ligands, such as ULBPs and MIC A/B, which are generally upregulated on stressed tumor cells. It has been established that tumors that express NKG2D ligands can readily be killed by immune effector cells that contain recognition receptors for these ligands [43,44]. Such tumors are also often rejected during transplantation [45], while tumorigenesis is favored in mice that lack the expression of NKG2D receptors [46]. Surprisingly, in GBM cells, the efficacy of NKG2D mediated tumor destruction may be decreased in part due to elevated expression of MHC class I molecules on their surface [47]. However, tumor cell killing can be enhanced by forced expression of NKG2D ligands in GBM tumors [48]. We showed that theDrug Resistant cd T Cell ImmunotherapyFigure 4. Expanded/activated cd T cells were manufactured as described in the text. Flow cytometry from two separate donors shown from (a) unmanipulated and (b) P140KMGMT-transduced cd T cells. For both panels (a) and (b) quadrant 2 (Q2) represents cd T 12926553 cells. As discussed in the text, the yield of cd T cells was slightly lower than control due to loss of cells during the transduction procedure; however, purity of the final product was not affected as bot.I:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gFigure 3. Transduction of cd T cells with lentivirus vector was performed on day 6, 7 and 8 of expansion culture (see text) with increasing MOI. (a) On day +14 cells were incubated in media supplemented with 400 mM TMZ and viable cell counts were obtained for each MOI. 1326631 Two separate experiments are shown. (b) Quantitative PCR analysis to measure P140KMGMT copy numbers of the bioengineered cd T cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of TMZ, which are indicated in the figure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gcombined additions of chemotherapy and genetically engineered immune effector cells [24]. We also showed that systemic administration of bioengineered chemotherapy-resistant hematopoietic cells has shown promise in animal models [23]. However, in the context of GBM therapy, systemic cell therapy will likely be an ineffective DRI strategy for established tumors due to their highly immunosuppressive nature of the tumor and the difficulty of the immune cells to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, systemic therapies incorporating DRI may be useful when directed at microscopic post-resection GBM. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a DRI strategy to enhance GBM cell clearance by the combined additions of genetically engineered cd T cells with temozolomide to tumor cells that are refractory to high concentrations of the drug. Our choice to test a cd T cell mediated DRI strategy is based upon our previous finding that cd T cells, injected stereotactically either during intracranial transplantation or a few days after the transplantation of GBM cells in mice can extend the survival of the treated animals when compared to the survival of the tumor bearing animals that were not treated [35]. The exploitation of a cd T cell based DRI strategy to target GBM is a practical approach since the tumor is partially shielded from the immune system, thereby preventing the elucidation of an immune response against locally infused cells. A cd T cell based DRI strategy against GBM cells can provide several benefits compared to chemotherapy alone, as cytotoxic drugs can potentially augment the cytolytic properties of the expanded cd T cells. These cells express activating receptors for NKG2D family of ligands, such as ULBPs and MIC A/B, which are generally upregulated on stressed tumor cells. It has been established that tumors that express NKG2D ligands can readily be killed by immune effector cells that contain recognition receptors for these ligands [43,44]. Such tumors are also often rejected during transplantation [45], while tumorigenesis is favored in mice that lack the expression of NKG2D receptors [46]. Surprisingly, in GBM cells, the efficacy of NKG2D mediated tumor destruction may be decreased in part due to elevated expression of MHC class I molecules on their surface [47]. However, tumor cell killing can be enhanced by forced expression of NKG2D ligands in GBM tumors [48]. We showed that theDrug Resistant cd T Cell ImmunotherapyFigure 4. Expanded/activated cd T cells were manufactured as described in the text. Flow cytometry from two separate donors shown from (a) unmanipulated and (b) P140KMGMT-transduced cd T cells. For both panels (a) and (b) quadrant 2 (Q2) represents cd T 12926553 cells. As discussed in the text, the yield of cd T cells was slightly lower than control due to loss of cells during the transduction procedure; however, purity of the final product was not affected as bot.

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