Nsive luciferase reporter gene [38], demonstrating that they contain estrogen receptor agonists

Nsive luciferase reporter gene [38], demonstrating that they contain Title Loaded From File estrogen receptor agonists (Figure 5). While endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been identified in extracts of environmental and food matrices, personal care products, sunscreens and a limited number of commercial and consumer products [39?2], most studies have focused on identification of known EDCs, rather than assessing the overall EDC activity of a sample extract and then identifying the responsible chemicals. Using hormone receptor based screening approaches, like that described here for the AhR, extracts of a very limited number of paper, rubber and plastic materials have been previously shown to contain estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and/or antiprogesteronic activity [43?5]. Thus, in addition to AhR agonists, commercial and consumer products also contain extractable estrogenic EDCs. The 23727046 effect of these extracts on other nuclear receptor signaling pathways remains to be determined. While the identities of the AhR- and ER-active chemicals described here and their toxicological impacts remain to beCommercial/Consumer Products Contain AhR AgonistsFigure 3. Induction of AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene activity in stably transfected mouse, rat and human hepatoma cells by extracts of commercial and consumer products. Recombinant mouse (H1L1.1c2), rat (H4L1.1c4) and human (HG21.1c3) hepatoma cell lines were incubated with the indicated extract (10 ml/ml) for 4 hr and luciferase activity determined as described in Material and methods. Values are expressed as a percentage of the maximal luciferase induction by TCDD and represent the mean 6 SD of triplicate determinations. The results shown are representative of duplicate experiments and those values significantly greater than that of solvent alone (p#0.05 as determined by the students T-test) are indicated by an asterisk. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056860.gCommercial/Consumer Products Contain AhR AgonistsFigure 4. Effect of extracts of newspaper and rubber on human skin CYP1A1 mRNA, embryonic zebrafish CYP1A-dependent EROD activity and zebrafish development. (A) Human skin was incubated with the indicated extract (newsprint (NP) or rubber stopper (RUB) at 1 final concentration) overnight at 37uC, mRNA was isolated and transcribed into cDNA and quantitated by real time PCR. Values are expressed as the mean 6 SD of 4 (TCDD) or 6 (extract) individual skin samples. All values were significantly different from those of DMSO controls (set to 1) at p,0.05 as determined by one-way ANOVA using Stata/SE9.2 software for Windows with Bonferroni corrections. 15900046 (B) Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos were exposed for 96 h to DMSO (0.02 v/v), newspaper (NP) extract (1:5,000 dilution), or rubber (RUB) stopper (1:5,000 or 1:20,000 dilution) added to the water and some also injected with 2 pumps of 16Danio embryo water or embryo water containing 0.15 mM CYP1A-morpholino; additional embryos were exposed to the AhR agonist beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, 1 mg/L) as the positive control for the same period. Hatched larvae were collected and analyzed for EROD activity. EROD values are expressed as the mean 6 SE of 5 embryos, where the asterisk purchase Fexinidazole indicates those values significantly different from the DMSO control at p,0.05 as determined by Student’s t-test. (C) The hatched larvae treated with extracts as in Figure 5B were examined for deformities by brightfield microscopy. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056860.gdetermined, their ease.Nsive luciferase reporter gene [38], demonstrating that they contain estrogen receptor agonists (Figure 5). While endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been identified in extracts of environmental and food matrices, personal care products, sunscreens and a limited number of commercial and consumer products [39?2], most studies have focused on identification of known EDCs, rather than assessing the overall EDC activity of a sample extract and then identifying the responsible chemicals. Using hormone receptor based screening approaches, like that described here for the AhR, extracts of a very limited number of paper, rubber and plastic materials have been previously shown to contain estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and/or antiprogesteronic activity [43?5]. Thus, in addition to AhR agonists, commercial and consumer products also contain extractable estrogenic EDCs. The 23727046 effect of these extracts on other nuclear receptor signaling pathways remains to be determined. While the identities of the AhR- and ER-active chemicals described here and their toxicological impacts remain to beCommercial/Consumer Products Contain AhR AgonistsFigure 3. Induction of AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene activity in stably transfected mouse, rat and human hepatoma cells by extracts of commercial and consumer products. Recombinant mouse (H1L1.1c2), rat (H4L1.1c4) and human (HG21.1c3) hepatoma cell lines were incubated with the indicated extract (10 ml/ml) for 4 hr and luciferase activity determined as described in Material and methods. Values are expressed as a percentage of the maximal luciferase induction by TCDD and represent the mean 6 SD of triplicate determinations. The results shown are representative of duplicate experiments and those values significantly greater than that of solvent alone (p#0.05 as determined by the students T-test) are indicated by an asterisk. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056860.gCommercial/Consumer Products Contain AhR AgonistsFigure 4. Effect of extracts of newspaper and rubber on human skin CYP1A1 mRNA, embryonic zebrafish CYP1A-dependent EROD activity and zebrafish development. (A) Human skin was incubated with the indicated extract (newsprint (NP) or rubber stopper (RUB) at 1 final concentration) overnight at 37uC, mRNA was isolated and transcribed into cDNA and quantitated by real time PCR. Values are expressed as the mean 6 SD of 4 (TCDD) or 6 (extract) individual skin samples. All values were significantly different from those of DMSO controls (set to 1) at p,0.05 as determined by one-way ANOVA using Stata/SE9.2 software for Windows with Bonferroni corrections. 15900046 (B) Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos were exposed for 96 h to DMSO (0.02 v/v), newspaper (NP) extract (1:5,000 dilution), or rubber (RUB) stopper (1:5,000 or 1:20,000 dilution) added to the water and some also injected with 2 pumps of 16Danio embryo water or embryo water containing 0.15 mM CYP1A-morpholino; additional embryos were exposed to the AhR agonist beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, 1 mg/L) as the positive control for the same period. Hatched larvae were collected and analyzed for EROD activity. EROD values are expressed as the mean 6 SE of 5 embryos, where the asterisk indicates those values significantly different from the DMSO control at p,0.05 as determined by Student’s t-test. (C) The hatched larvae treated with extracts as in Figure 5B were examined for deformities by brightfield microscopy. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056860.gdetermined, their ease.

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