Tly elevated in HE group (162.4268.49 mmol/min/g, p,0.05) compared with

Tly elevated in HE group (162.4268.49 mmol/min/g, p,0.05) compared with HC group.silver staining. In the present study, we used an NE (normal chow, exercise) group for a control (See Table S1) to characterize the exercise effects on mice with normal diet as opposed to the exercise effects on mice with high-fat diet. Fifteen protein spots were significantly altered between NC and HC, including one spot that disappeared exclusively in HC. Twenty-three protein spots were significantly changed between HC and HE, including one spot that disappeared and one spot that appeared exclusively in HE group. Fourteen spots were altered in opposite by high-fat diet and aerobic exercise. Proteins involved in the biological processes of transport, protein synthesis and degradation, muscle contractile, carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative stress response, and others underwent Gene Ontology analysis. In the present study, some proteins were present in multiple spots, such as spot 8, 9, 10, 11 and 13. Two spots (spot 8 and 9) were identified as Trim 72, and three spots (spot 10, 11, and 13) were identified as MHC IIb, which are perhaps due to isoforms of the same proteins.Immunoblot AnalysisAlthough our proteomic data indicated differential protein expression among all the groups, we could not exclude the possibility of false-positive findings in the proteomic analysis. To address this issue, some proteins (Fig. 5), including Fabp4, Hsp25, Myh4 and Trim72 were (��)-Hexaconazole chemical information further confirmed by immunoblot analysis. As shown in Fig. 6, the expression levels of all tested proteins were Oltipraz chemical information basically consistent with those of the proteomic study (Also shown as Figure S1). To determine whether the skeletal muscle mass was enhanced by exercise training, we also detectedOverview of Proteomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscles of All GroupsProtein separation was performed by 2-DE. Fig. 4 shows a representative image of skeletal muscle proteins. Protein identified by MALDI-TOF-MS or LC-MS/MS are listed in Table 2. Image analysis of gels revealed the presence of protein spots, visualized by Table 1. Insulin level and plasma lipid parameters after 6week aerobic exercise.NC Insulin (ng/mL) FFA (mmol/L) HDL (mmol/L) TC (mmol/L) TG (mmol/L) 0.35660.072 1.12460.074 2.31060.197 2.29360.196 0.57960.HC 0.55660.081 1.51760.136 2.45260.175 3.58660.328 0.94660.* * * *HE 0.40260.062# 1.14360.139# 3.67960.203# 2.99460.329# 0.63960.129#Values are means 6 SEM (n = 6, per group). *P,0.05 HFD control (HC) vs. normal chow (NC). # P,0.05 HFD exercise (HE) vs. HC. FFA: Free fatty acid; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053887.tFigure 3. Citrate synthase activity in each group. Citrate synthase activity levels in the quadriceps muscle of mice from NC, HC and HE, respectively. Values are shown as means 6 SEM (n = 6, each group). *:P,0.05 vs. HC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053887.gTable 2. List of identified protein by LC-MS/MS or MALDI-TOF/MS.Spot No. Fold Change P valueProtein NameDescriptionGI NumberScoreSequence coverage MWa Plb HC vs. NC Fold ChangeMatched peptidesHE vs. HC P valueTransport 6755965 6755963 109571 25.56 1.52 157829776 92 45 8 14469 8.01 249 48 19 30358 5.52 146 16 5 30737 8.62 3.56 400 33 10 31713 7.44 3.96 0.007 0.042 0.029 ,0.001 21.72 22.38 2.62 22 0.016 0.009 0.021 0.468546 158937312 33563282 89 36 8 29528 6 160 58 12 23000 6.12 379 22 8 57411 5.97 NS 24.95 NS 0.045 22 1.73 1.67 0.037 0.025 0.014 121247302 121247302 958.Tly elevated in HE group (162.4268.49 mmol/min/g, p,0.05) compared with HC group.silver staining. In the present study, we used an NE (normal chow, exercise) group for a control (See Table S1) to characterize the exercise effects on mice with normal diet as opposed to the exercise effects on mice with high-fat diet. Fifteen protein spots were significantly altered between NC and HC, including one spot that disappeared exclusively in HC. Twenty-three protein spots were significantly changed between HC and HE, including one spot that disappeared and one spot that appeared exclusively in HE group. Fourteen spots were altered in opposite by high-fat diet and aerobic exercise. Proteins involved in the biological processes of transport, protein synthesis and degradation, muscle contractile, carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative stress response, and others underwent Gene Ontology analysis. In the present study, some proteins were present in multiple spots, such as spot 8, 9, 10, 11 and 13. Two spots (spot 8 and 9) were identified as Trim 72, and three spots (spot 10, 11, and 13) were identified as MHC IIb, which are perhaps due to isoforms of the same proteins.Immunoblot AnalysisAlthough our proteomic data indicated differential protein expression among all the groups, we could not exclude the possibility of false-positive findings in the proteomic analysis. To address this issue, some proteins (Fig. 5), including Fabp4, Hsp25, Myh4 and Trim72 were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis. As shown in Fig. 6, the expression levels of all tested proteins were basically consistent with those of the proteomic study (Also shown as Figure S1). To determine whether the skeletal muscle mass was enhanced by exercise training, we also detectedOverview of Proteomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscles of All GroupsProtein separation was performed by 2-DE. Fig. 4 shows a representative image of skeletal muscle proteins. Protein identified by MALDI-TOF-MS or LC-MS/MS are listed in Table 2. Image analysis of gels revealed the presence of protein spots, visualized by Table 1. Insulin level and plasma lipid parameters after 6week aerobic exercise.NC Insulin (ng/mL) FFA (mmol/L) HDL (mmol/L) TC (mmol/L) TG (mmol/L) 0.35660.072 1.12460.074 2.31060.197 2.29360.196 0.57960.HC 0.55660.081 1.51760.136 2.45260.175 3.58660.328 0.94660.* * * *HE 0.40260.062# 1.14360.139# 3.67960.203# 2.99460.329# 0.63960.129#Values are means 6 SEM (n = 6, per group). *P,0.05 HFD control (HC) vs. normal chow (NC). # P,0.05 HFD exercise (HE) vs. HC. FFA: Free fatty acid; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053887.tFigure 3. Citrate synthase activity in each group. Citrate synthase activity levels in the quadriceps muscle of mice from NC, HC and HE, respectively. Values are shown as means 6 SEM (n = 6, each group). *:P,0.05 vs. HC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053887.gTable 2. List of identified protein by LC-MS/MS or MALDI-TOF/MS.Spot No. Fold Change P valueProtein NameDescriptionGI NumberScoreSequence coverage MWa Plb HC vs. NC Fold ChangeMatched peptidesHE vs. HC P valueTransport 6755965 6755963 109571 25.56 1.52 157829776 92 45 8 14469 8.01 249 48 19 30358 5.52 146 16 5 30737 8.62 3.56 400 33 10 31713 7.44 3.96 0.007 0.042 0.029 ,0.001 21.72 22.38 2.62 22 0.016 0.009 0.021 0.468546 158937312 33563282 89 36 8 29528 6 160 58 12 23000 6.12 379 22 8 57411 5.97 NS 24.95 NS 0.045 22 1.73 1.67 0.037 0.025 0.014 121247302 121247302 958.

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