Ach methylxanthines; and at the same time the presence of bulky

Ach methylxanthines; and at the same time the presence of bulky methyl groups (1,3,7-trimethyl) in caffeine (Fig. 1) impede its efficacy and thereby theophylline or theobromine Tubastatin-A exceeds caffeine in the binding affinity. Thus the steric hindrance offered by methyl groups in methylxanthines are considered to be the rate limiting factors in determining its preferential or increased binding affinity with Tm or pH melted DNA. This observation is very much similar to our earlier reported study of RNA binding efficacy of methylxanthines [15], where theophylline and theobromine are shown to have enhanced binding efficacy than caffeine. This binding affinity difference led these 1676428 molecules to interfere differently in modulating the splicing mechanism of group I intron RNA [25]. As far as the metal ion is considered it reduces the aggregation and induce some structural perturbations in DNA (refer the FTIR analysis above) favor the enhanced binding of methylxanthines that eventually upheave the binding affinity of theophylline and theobromine than caffeine. Hence the order of binding affinity of these methylxanthines with denatured the form of DNA and in the presence of metal ions is visualized as “theophylline theobromine.caffeine”. Moreover it is needed to be clarified that even though the Tm or pH melting directs the native double CI-1011 manufacturer helical DNA to undergo helix-coil transitions, at some extant re-annealing of DNA is always be un-avoided. However the present study indicates that some degree of re-annealing occurrence together with helix-coil transitions has not affected the overall binding activity of the methylxanthines. Indeed it helped us to study the binding activity of methylxanthines from double helical form of DNA to its denaturing state and enabled to derive and compare the increased binding activity of methylxanthines without changing the transition environment. This is mainly because of the fact that the binding activity of methylxanthines originally refereed to the double helical DNA would be invalid and may not that ease orFigure 7. Helix-coil transition analysis, Tm-profile. (A). UV spectra of Tm-DNA in the presence of methylxanthines at P/D 6. 1676428 (B). A representative picture indicating the percentage of increased binding activity of methylxanthines with Tm-DNA at P/D 6. X1-theophylline, X2theobromine and X3-caffeine. Values are mean 6 SE with p,0.002 vs control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050019.gInteraction of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA by Tm/pH melting profilesInteraction of methylxanthines was studied during helix-coil transition of DNA, using higher temperature and pH as described in the methods section. The absorbance spectrum of heat melted DNA in the presence of drugs at varying P/D ratios was compared with heat melted free DNA (without drugs) and double helical (non-heat melted) DNA. Tm melting profile showed a significant increase of 24?0 in binding activity of methylxanthines (P/D 6) with DNA during helix-coil transition state rather than to a native double helical structure or in absence of any helix-coil transitions (Figs. 7A ).Methylxanthines Binding with DNAFigure 8. Helix-coil transition analysis, pH melting profile. (A). pH melting profile of calf thymus DNA in 10 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, produced by adding ml aliquots of 1M NaOH. pH melting curves of calf thymus DNA, which was preincubated with theophylline (X1) (B), theobromine (X2) (C) and Caffeine (X3) (D) at P/D 3 and 6. doi:10.1371/journal.po.Ach methylxanthines; and at the same time the presence of bulky methyl groups (1,3,7-trimethyl) in caffeine (Fig. 1) impede its efficacy and thereby theophylline or theobromine exceeds caffeine in the binding affinity. Thus the steric hindrance offered by methyl groups in methylxanthines are considered to be the rate limiting factors in determining its preferential or increased binding affinity with Tm or pH melted DNA. This observation is very much similar to our earlier reported study of RNA binding efficacy of methylxanthines [15], where theophylline and theobromine are shown to have enhanced binding efficacy than caffeine. This binding affinity difference led these 1676428 molecules to interfere differently in modulating the splicing mechanism of group I intron RNA [25]. As far as the metal ion is considered it reduces the aggregation and induce some structural perturbations in DNA (refer the FTIR analysis above) favor the enhanced binding of methylxanthines that eventually upheave the binding affinity of theophylline and theobromine than caffeine. Hence the order of binding affinity of these methylxanthines with denatured the form of DNA and in the presence of metal ions is visualized as “theophylline theobromine.caffeine”. Moreover it is needed to be clarified that even though the Tm or pH melting directs the native double helical DNA to undergo helix-coil transitions, at some extant re-annealing of DNA is always be un-avoided. However the present study indicates that some degree of re-annealing occurrence together with helix-coil transitions has not affected the overall binding activity of the methylxanthines. Indeed it helped us to study the binding activity of methylxanthines from double helical form of DNA to its denaturing state and enabled to derive and compare the increased binding activity of methylxanthines without changing the transition environment. This is mainly because of the fact that the binding activity of methylxanthines originally refereed to the double helical DNA would be invalid and may not that ease orFigure 7. Helix-coil transition analysis, Tm-profile. (A). UV spectra of Tm-DNA in the presence of methylxanthines at P/D 6. 1676428 (B). A representative picture indicating the percentage of increased binding activity of methylxanthines with Tm-DNA at P/D 6. X1-theophylline, X2theobromine and X3-caffeine. Values are mean 6 SE with p,0.002 vs control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050019.gInteraction of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA by Tm/pH melting profilesInteraction of methylxanthines was studied during helix-coil transition of DNA, using higher temperature and pH as described in the methods section. The absorbance spectrum of heat melted DNA in the presence of drugs at varying P/D ratios was compared with heat melted free DNA (without drugs) and double helical (non-heat melted) DNA. Tm melting profile showed a significant increase of 24?0 in binding activity of methylxanthines (P/D 6) with DNA during helix-coil transition state rather than to a native double helical structure or in absence of any helix-coil transitions (Figs. 7A ).Methylxanthines Binding with DNAFigure 8. Helix-coil transition analysis, pH melting profile. (A). pH melting profile of calf thymus DNA in 10 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, produced by adding ml aliquots of 1M NaOH. pH melting curves of calf thymus DNA, which was preincubated with theophylline (X1) (B), theobromine (X2) (C) and Caffeine (X3) (D) at P/D 3 and 6. doi:10.1371/journal.po.

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