F the p42/p44 MAP kinase was normal in obese and

F the p42/p44 MAP kinase was normal in obese and diabetic subjects [19]. Furthermore, Jager et al demonstrated that specific inactivation of p44 MAP kinase in obese, leptin deficient mice protected them against insulin resistance despite Oltipraz chemical information massive obesity. These animals exhibited relatively good whole-body insulin sensitivity and increased insulin action in skeletal muscle compared to control animals [20]. However all of the studies suggest that this pathway MedChemExpress BIBS39 exerts control over insulin action, where chronic deletion may generate compensatory insulin sensitising mechanisms but the initial loss of insulin induction of p42/p44 MAP kinase may be a marker of defective insulin action in muscle in response to obesity. Others have suggested that defective IRS1 or IRS2 signalling is present in muscle of patients with T2DM. Supporting this hypothesis, a genetic variant near IRS1, that is associated with reduced basal levels of IRS1 protein and decreased insulin induction of IRS1-associated PI-3K activity in 23727046 human skeletal muscle biopsies, is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulinSkeletal Muscle Signalling Defects in ObesityTable 1. Summary table.BMI 36 35 35 37 27 33 31 30 30 31 24 29 24 28 29 28 20 24 22 22M-value 0.9 1.8 2.5 3.2 3.7 3.9 4.3 4.5 5 5 5.4 5.9 6 6 6.4 7.6 7.6 8.7 9.1 9.4 11.IRS1 protein expression L2 LChange in PKB phosphorylationp42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylationp42/44 MAP kinase activity LLHLLL2 LL1 HH1 L3 H3 L2 H3 L4 L3 L3 H4 L1 LH1 HH2 HHHHHHHThe study group is presented from the lower to the higher M-value, demonstrating clustering of signalling abnormalities stratified in ascending order according to the induction of signalling changes in response to insulin. Least potent induction is ranked as lowest L1 to L4; most potent induction 1531364 is ranked as highest H1 to H4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056928.tresistance and hyperinsulinemia [21]. We have previously reported a significant increase in IRS1 protein expression following acute insulin treatment of human muscle [11]; however the fold induction of IRS1 expression in response to insulin in this study was not correlated with either BMI or M value. We cannot rule out abnormalities in one or more of the many post translational modifications of this protein (or its homologue IRS2), however we have focussed on distal signalling mechanisms where deficits in IRS1 function would still be detectable. For example, a mutation in PKB beta has been found to associate with severe IR and lipodystrophy, demonstrating the importance of the IRS-PI3K-PKB pathway to insulin sensitivity [22], although mutations in this protein appear to contribute to only a very small fraction of IR in the population [23]. Our data suggest that there are relatively few cases of defective IRS1-PKB signalling that correlate with obesity induced insulin resistance in an otherwise healthy population. We measured protein expression, the phosphorylation (at a residue known to regulate activity in response to insulin) and where possible the inherent activity of PKB, p42/p44 MAPK GSK3, FOXO1 and p70S6K. Although we could not detect abnormalities in PKB activation by insulin, there was an indication that the phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 may be higher in the muscle of the more insulin sensitive group, at least after exposure to insulin, although the differences were not significant. Indeed, the dissociation of whole body IR from defects in proximal insulin signaling in obese volunteers that we observe are also consistent wi.F the p42/p44 MAP kinase was normal in obese and diabetic subjects [19]. Furthermore, Jager et al demonstrated that specific inactivation of p44 MAP kinase in obese, leptin deficient mice protected them against insulin resistance despite massive obesity. These animals exhibited relatively good whole-body insulin sensitivity and increased insulin action in skeletal muscle compared to control animals [20]. However all of the studies suggest that this pathway exerts control over insulin action, where chronic deletion may generate compensatory insulin sensitising mechanisms but the initial loss of insulin induction of p42/p44 MAP kinase may be a marker of defective insulin action in muscle in response to obesity. Others have suggested that defective IRS1 or IRS2 signalling is present in muscle of patients with T2DM. Supporting this hypothesis, a genetic variant near IRS1, that is associated with reduced basal levels of IRS1 protein and decreased insulin induction of IRS1-associated PI-3K activity in 23727046 human skeletal muscle biopsies, is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulinSkeletal Muscle Signalling Defects in ObesityTable 1. Summary table.BMI 36 35 35 37 27 33 31 30 30 31 24 29 24 28 29 28 20 24 22 22M-value 0.9 1.8 2.5 3.2 3.7 3.9 4.3 4.5 5 5 5.4 5.9 6 6 6.4 7.6 7.6 8.7 9.1 9.4 11.IRS1 protein expression L2 LChange in PKB phosphorylationp42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylationp42/44 MAP kinase activity LLHLLL2 LL1 HH1 L3 H3 L2 H3 L4 L3 L3 H4 L1 LH1 HH2 HHHHHHHThe study group is presented from the lower to the higher M-value, demonstrating clustering of signalling abnormalities stratified in ascending order according to the induction of signalling changes in response to insulin. Least potent induction is ranked as lowest L1 to L4; most potent induction 1531364 is ranked as highest H1 to H4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056928.tresistance and hyperinsulinemia [21]. We have previously reported a significant increase in IRS1 protein expression following acute insulin treatment of human muscle [11]; however the fold induction of IRS1 expression in response to insulin in this study was not correlated with either BMI or M value. We cannot rule out abnormalities in one or more of the many post translational modifications of this protein (or its homologue IRS2), however we have focussed on distal signalling mechanisms where deficits in IRS1 function would still be detectable. For example, a mutation in PKB beta has been found to associate with severe IR and lipodystrophy, demonstrating the importance of the IRS-PI3K-PKB pathway to insulin sensitivity [22], although mutations in this protein appear to contribute to only a very small fraction of IR in the population [23]. Our data suggest that there are relatively few cases of defective IRS1-PKB signalling that correlate with obesity induced insulin resistance in an otherwise healthy population. We measured protein expression, the phosphorylation (at a residue known to regulate activity in response to insulin) and where possible the inherent activity of PKB, p42/p44 MAPK GSK3, FOXO1 and p70S6K. Although we could not detect abnormalities in PKB activation by insulin, there was an indication that the phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 may be higher in the muscle of the more insulin sensitive group, at least after exposure to insulin, although the differences were not significant. Indeed, the dissociation of whole body IR from defects in proximal insulin signaling in obese volunteers that we observe are also consistent wi.

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