Erformed a linear regression based approach, analyzing the effects of age

Erformed a linear regression based approach, analyzing the effects of age, clinical score, sex, caeruloplasmin in serum, and copper in serum and urine on macular Anlotinib thickness as the main retinal parameter in our patients. Of these parameters only sex had a significant (p = 0.026) effect with a corrected ?coefficient of 37 . A further comparison revealed that in our collective, males indeed had a thicker macular thickness than females (p = 0.02 t-test; M6SD: males: 307.8 mm 613.9, females: 318.3 mm 616.5). In the control cohort, in contrast, we observed no purchase Gracillin difference in macular thickness between males and females (p.0.05, t-test, M6SD: males: 324.1 mm 613.5, females: 318.9 mm 615.4).DiscussionWe were able to reproduce previously reported findings [10,11,14?6] that indicate that in Wilson’s disease, VEP latencies are delayed. We believe that the prolonged P100 latencies are likely to reflect a slowed conduction velocity of the visual tract caused by copper deposits. A structural analysis of the retina by OCT revealed reduced thickness of the RNFL, total macula and GCIP, clearly indicating pathological changes to the retinal ganglion cells and their axons in the retina. In line with previous publications [12], the VEP amplitudes of Wilson’s disease patients were unchanged compared with controls. However, in Wilson’s disease patients, low VEP amplitudes tended to be associated with thinner RNFL, GCIP and total macular thickness, although these correlations failed to reach significance. In other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the VEP amplitude is reported to correlate with the RNFL thickness [31]. It is possible that the extent of axonal loss in Wilson’s disease patients was not sufficient to significantly reduce the VEP amplitude. However, these findings indicate that OCT may be a more sensitive parameter of axonal loss in Wilson’s disease than VEP amplitudes. To our knowledge, no histopathological studies analyzing the retinae of patients with Wilson’s disease have been reported, so the exact mechanisms of retinal degeneration in these patients remain unclear. However, the reduction of RNFL thickness in Wilson’s disease reflects degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell axons and degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells themselves and is likely to account for the observed reduced thickness of the GCIP complex. Neuronal degeneration as a consequence of axonal damage due to copper deposition along the optic nerve and tract is a plausible explanation for these observations. The prolonged N75 and P100 latencies of VEPs indicate a slowed conduction of the visual tract due to the copper depositions themselves or secondary demyelination. The observed reduction of the total macular thickness can be attributed to the thinning of the RNFL and GCIP, which make up approximately one-third of the total thickness at theFigure 3. Visual evoked potentials: N75 and P100 latencies are prolonged in Wilson’s disease. A Representative VEP curves of Wilson’s disease patients and controls are displayed. B Scatter plots of the mean VEP parameters. Each point represents the mean of the two eyes of one patient. The mean of all patients is indicated by a horizontal bar. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks (p,0.05, two-tailed t test); non-significant differences are indicated as n.s. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049825.gVisual acuity was above 80 in all patients and correlated significantly only with N75 and P100 VEP latency (Pearson: p = 0.038, r =.Erformed a linear regression based approach, analyzing the effects of age, clinical score, sex, caeruloplasmin in serum, and copper in serum and urine on macular thickness as the main retinal parameter in our patients. Of these parameters only sex had a significant (p = 0.026) effect with a corrected ?coefficient of 37 . A further comparison revealed that in our collective, males indeed had a thicker macular thickness than females (p = 0.02 t-test; M6SD: males: 307.8 mm 613.9, females: 318.3 mm 616.5). In the control cohort, in contrast, we observed no difference in macular thickness between males and females (p.0.05, t-test, M6SD: males: 324.1 mm 613.5, females: 318.9 mm 615.4).DiscussionWe were able to reproduce previously reported findings [10,11,14?6] that indicate that in Wilson’s disease, VEP latencies are delayed. We believe that the prolonged P100 latencies are likely to reflect a slowed conduction velocity of the visual tract caused by copper deposits. A structural analysis of the retina by OCT revealed reduced thickness of the RNFL, total macula and GCIP, clearly indicating pathological changes to the retinal ganglion cells and their axons in the retina. In line with previous publications [12], the VEP amplitudes of Wilson’s disease patients were unchanged compared with controls. However, in Wilson’s disease patients, low VEP amplitudes tended to be associated with thinner RNFL, GCIP and total macular thickness, although these correlations failed to reach significance. In other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the VEP amplitude is reported to correlate with the RNFL thickness [31]. It is possible that the extent of axonal loss in Wilson’s disease patients was not sufficient to significantly reduce the VEP amplitude. However, these findings indicate that OCT may be a more sensitive parameter of axonal loss in Wilson’s disease than VEP amplitudes. To our knowledge, no histopathological studies analyzing the retinae of patients with Wilson’s disease have been reported, so the exact mechanisms of retinal degeneration in these patients remain unclear. However, the reduction of RNFL thickness in Wilson’s disease reflects degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell axons and degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells themselves and is likely to account for the observed reduced thickness of the GCIP complex. Neuronal degeneration as a consequence of axonal damage due to copper deposition along the optic nerve and tract is a plausible explanation for these observations. The prolonged N75 and P100 latencies of VEPs indicate a slowed conduction of the visual tract due to the copper depositions themselves or secondary demyelination. The observed reduction of the total macular thickness can be attributed to the thinning of the RNFL and GCIP, which make up approximately one-third of the total thickness at theFigure 3. Visual evoked potentials: N75 and P100 latencies are prolonged in Wilson’s disease. A Representative VEP curves of Wilson’s disease patients and controls are displayed. B Scatter plots of the mean VEP parameters. Each point represents the mean of the two eyes of one patient. The mean of all patients is indicated by a horizontal bar. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks (p,0.05, two-tailed t test); non-significant differences are indicated as n.s. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049825.gVisual acuity was above 80 in all patients and correlated significantly only with N75 and P100 VEP latency (Pearson: p = 0.038, r =.

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