Emselves in an autocrine manner as well as other neighboring antigen

Emselves in an autocrine manner as well as other neighboring antigen activated T cells [33]. Since activated T cells are known to secrete exosomes [24] the aim of this study was to determine if exosomes secreted from activated CD3+ cells could play a role in an immunological response, enhanced by exogenous IL-2, by conveying signals from their secreting cells to resting CD3+ cells in an in vitro autologous setting. We show that upon stimulation, CD3+ T cells from human donors secrete exosomes, and that these exosomes together with IL-2 generate an immune response in resting autologous CD3+ T cells. With automated cell counting, a proliferation assay, flow cytometry and a human cytokine array, we could monitor the immune response in the stimulated CD3+ T cells.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThis study, conducted at Sahlgrenska Academy in Sweden, includes blood from buffy coats obtained from the blood bank at Component laboratory at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Ethics approval was not needed since theProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and ExosomesProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and ExosomesFigure 1. Characterization of exosomes from CD3+ T cells stimulated with IL-2, anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. (A) Particle sizes in ultracentrifuge pellet consistent with size range of exosomes. Average exosome size was 54 nm. Measured with dynamic light scattering (B) Exosomes bound to latex beads and stained with antibodies against exosome associated proteins (CD9, CD63 andCD81) and T cell associated proteins (CD3, CD4, CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC-I, MHC-II and ICAM-1) measured with flow cytometry. Dotted line MedChemExpress AN-3199 represents isotype control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049723.gbuffy coats were provided anonymously and could not be traced back to a specific individual. This is in line with Swedish legislation section code 41 3p SFS 2003:460 (Lag om etikprovning av ?forskning som avser manniskor). ?Isolation of T cell ExosomesTo generate exosomes from CD3+ T cells 16106 cells/ml were incubated with 3 mg/ml Gracillin cost anti-human CD28 (clone CD28.2), 1 mg/ ml anti-human CD3 clone HIT3a (pre-coated for 2 hours at 37uC before seeding of cells) purchased from BD Biosciences Pharmingen (Belgium) and 20 ng/mL interleukin (IL)-2 (R D Systems, UK). The supernatant was harvested after four days and exosomes were isolated by centrifugation and filtration steps as previously described [20]. Briefly, supernatants were centrifuged at 400 g for 10 min to pellet cells and at 165006g for 30 minutes with subsequent passing through a 0.2 mm filter to remove cell debris, finally exosomes were pelleted by ultracentrifugation at 1200006g for 70 minutes in a Beckman Optima L-100 XP ultracentrifuge using a Ti70 rotor (Beckman Coulter, Germany). Exosome pellets were resuspended in Dulbeccos PBS.CellsCD3 positive T cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 1326631 from buffy coats from healthy donors (Component laboratory Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden) by LymphoprepTM gradient centrifugation (AxisShield Poc As, Norway). Isolation of the T cells was performed using DynabeadsH UntouchedTM Human T cells Kit according to manufacturer’s instructions (Dynal, Invitrogen, Sweden). The isolated cells were maintained in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10 foetal bovine serum (FBS), depleted from exosomes by ultracentrifugation at 1200006g for 70 min, 100 mg/mL streptomycin/penicillin, 2 mM L-glutamine and 1 mM sodium pyruvate (Sigma-Aldrich, Swede.Emselves in an autocrine manner as well as other neighboring antigen activated T cells [33]. Since activated T cells are known to secrete exosomes [24] the aim of this study was to determine if exosomes secreted from activated CD3+ cells could play a role in an immunological response, enhanced by exogenous IL-2, by conveying signals from their secreting cells to resting CD3+ cells in an in vitro autologous setting. We show that upon stimulation, CD3+ T cells from human donors secrete exosomes, and that these exosomes together with IL-2 generate an immune response in resting autologous CD3+ T cells. With automated cell counting, a proliferation assay, flow cytometry and a human cytokine array, we could monitor the immune response in the stimulated CD3+ T cells.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThis study, conducted at Sahlgrenska Academy in Sweden, includes blood from buffy coats obtained from the blood bank at Component laboratory at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Ethics approval was not needed since theProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and ExosomesProliferation of T Cells with IL2 and ExosomesFigure 1. Characterization of exosomes from CD3+ T cells stimulated with IL-2, anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. (A) Particle sizes in ultracentrifuge pellet consistent with size range of exosomes. Average exosome size was 54 nm. Measured with dynamic light scattering (B) Exosomes bound to latex beads and stained with antibodies against exosome associated proteins (CD9, CD63 andCD81) and T cell associated proteins (CD3, CD4, CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC-I, MHC-II and ICAM-1) measured with flow cytometry. Dotted line represents isotype control. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049723.gbuffy coats were provided anonymously and could not be traced back to a specific individual. This is in line with Swedish legislation section code 41 3p SFS 2003:460 (Lag om etikprovning av ?forskning som avser manniskor). ?Isolation of T cell ExosomesTo generate exosomes from CD3+ T cells 16106 cells/ml were incubated with 3 mg/ml anti-human CD28 (clone CD28.2), 1 mg/ ml anti-human CD3 clone HIT3a (pre-coated for 2 hours at 37uC before seeding of cells) purchased from BD Biosciences Pharmingen (Belgium) and 20 ng/mL interleukin (IL)-2 (R D Systems, UK). The supernatant was harvested after four days and exosomes were isolated by centrifugation and filtration steps as previously described [20]. Briefly, supernatants were centrifuged at 400 g for 10 min to pellet cells and at 165006g for 30 minutes with subsequent passing through a 0.2 mm filter to remove cell debris, finally exosomes were pelleted by ultracentrifugation at 1200006g for 70 minutes in a Beckman Optima L-100 XP ultracentrifuge using a Ti70 rotor (Beckman Coulter, Germany). Exosome pellets were resuspended in Dulbeccos PBS.CellsCD3 positive T cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 1326631 from buffy coats from healthy donors (Component laboratory Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden) by LymphoprepTM gradient centrifugation (AxisShield Poc As, Norway). Isolation of the T cells was performed using DynabeadsH UntouchedTM Human T cells Kit according to manufacturer’s instructions (Dynal, Invitrogen, Sweden). The isolated cells were maintained in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10 foetal bovine serum (FBS), depleted from exosomes by ultracentrifugation at 1200006g for 70 min, 100 mg/mL streptomycin/penicillin, 2 mM L-glutamine and 1 mM sodium pyruvate (Sigma-Aldrich, Swede.

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