Higher cells, the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G is

Higher cells, the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G is regulated by eIF4E-BPs, small acidic proteins which impede their interaction by binding to eIF4E. When translation takes place, eIF4E-BPs become hyperphosphorylated by the kinase Tor1 dissociating thereby from eIF4E and allowing for the formation of the eIF4F complex. Overexpression of eIF4E in mammalian cells is an important determinant of cell proliferation which is observed in several cancer forms [1]. Accordingly, different strategies are now under clinical trial to downregulate the activity or concentration of eIF4E to impede cell growth [2,3]. In the unicellular yeast S. cerevisiae, eIF4E is an essential component of protein synthesis. Several mutants of eIF4E with reduced cap-binding activity have been obtained which render a temperature-sensitive phenotype and arrest cell growth at nonpermissive temperatures [4,5]. At least two eIF4E-BPs, called p20 and Eap1 exist in S. cerevisiae which interact with eIF4E and compete thereby for its interaction with eIF4G [6,7]. Previous studies have shown, that 64849-39-4 diploid yeast cells carrying a knockout of the non-essential genes encoding p20 (caf20) and Eap1 loose their tendency to form pseudohyphae [8,9]. Pseudohyphenation of diploid yeast cells is due to reprogramming observed when cells are exposed to nutritional limitations such as low nitrogen concentrations. This developmental switch is under the controlof downstream effectors of the cAMP/PKA, Snf1 and MAPK pathways and allows the cells to forage the environment for better nutritional conditions [10]. More recently, the importance of the signal transduction pathway which regulates Tor1-activity has been described as a further determinant of the developmental switch which leads to pseudohyphenation upon nitrogen starvation (for a recent review, see [11]). Haploid yeast cells do not form pseudohyphae but can adhere to organic or buy AZ-876 anorganic surfaces and penetrate thereby other cells. Such a condition which was previously known for pathogenic yeasts species such as C. albicans or C. glabrata has been also observed in recent years for S. cerevisiae strains which cause severe problems to patients with reduced immunoresistance [12]. For both adhesion and pseudohyphenation, expression of the cell adhesion protein Flo11 is an important determinant. The promoter 23727046 region of the gene encoding Flo11 is regulated by transcription factors such as Flo8, which is not expressed in nonfilamentous yeast strains and as Gcn4, which is induced upon amino acid starvation. Several signal transduction pathways converge and regulate the level of Flo11-mRNA expression (reviewed in [11]). It has been reported that inhibition of protein synthesis plays a role for the commitment of yeast cells to enter differentiation programs that lead to adhesion and pseudohyphenation. It is not clear if those inhibitory effects are due to inhibition of global protein synthesis or inhibition of particular mRNAs. So, rapamycin which inhibits the TOR protein kinases leads to inhibition of pseudohyphenation of diploids but not to loss of adhesion of haploids [13]. Inhibition of adhesive properties haseIF4E’s Role in AdhesionFigure 1. eIF4E temperature-sensitive mutants loose adhesion, pseudohyphenation and cap-interaction. (A) Adhesion of haploid eIF4E mutants ts4-2, ts4-3, cdc33-1 in comparison to eIF4E wt. Plates were incubated at 30u or 35uC for 2 days, then washed under a gentle stream of water. (B) Pseudohyphenation of diploid eIF4E.Higher cells, the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G is regulated by eIF4E-BPs, small acidic proteins which impede their interaction by binding to eIF4E. When translation takes place, eIF4E-BPs become hyperphosphorylated by the kinase Tor1 dissociating thereby from eIF4E and allowing for the formation of the eIF4F complex. Overexpression of eIF4E in mammalian cells is an important determinant of cell proliferation which is observed in several cancer forms [1]. Accordingly, different strategies are now under clinical trial to downregulate the activity or concentration of eIF4E to impede cell growth [2,3]. In the unicellular yeast S. cerevisiae, eIF4E is an essential component of protein synthesis. Several mutants of eIF4E with reduced cap-binding activity have been obtained which render a temperature-sensitive phenotype and arrest cell growth at nonpermissive temperatures [4,5]. At least two eIF4E-BPs, called p20 and Eap1 exist in S. cerevisiae which interact with eIF4E and compete thereby for its interaction with eIF4G [6,7]. Previous studies have shown, that diploid yeast cells carrying a knockout of the non-essential genes encoding p20 (caf20) and Eap1 loose their tendency to form pseudohyphae [8,9]. Pseudohyphenation of diploid yeast cells is due to reprogramming observed when cells are exposed to nutritional limitations such as low nitrogen concentrations. This developmental switch is under the controlof downstream effectors of the cAMP/PKA, Snf1 and MAPK pathways and allows the cells to forage the environment for better nutritional conditions [10]. More recently, the importance of the signal transduction pathway which regulates Tor1-activity has been described as a further determinant of the developmental switch which leads to pseudohyphenation upon nitrogen starvation (for a recent review, see [11]). Haploid yeast cells do not form pseudohyphae but can adhere to organic or anorganic surfaces and penetrate thereby other cells. Such a condition which was previously known for pathogenic yeasts species such as C. albicans or C. glabrata has been also observed in recent years for S. cerevisiae strains which cause severe problems to patients with reduced immunoresistance [12]. For both adhesion and pseudohyphenation, expression of the cell adhesion protein Flo11 is an important determinant. The promoter 23727046 region of the gene encoding Flo11 is regulated by transcription factors such as Flo8, which is not expressed in nonfilamentous yeast strains and as Gcn4, which is induced upon amino acid starvation. Several signal transduction pathways converge and regulate the level of Flo11-mRNA expression (reviewed in [11]). It has been reported that inhibition of protein synthesis plays a role for the commitment of yeast cells to enter differentiation programs that lead to adhesion and pseudohyphenation. It is not clear if those inhibitory effects are due to inhibition of global protein synthesis or inhibition of particular mRNAs. So, rapamycin which inhibits the TOR protein kinases leads to inhibition of pseudohyphenation of diploids but not to loss of adhesion of haploids [13]. Inhibition of adhesive properties haseIF4E’s Role in AdhesionFigure 1. eIF4E temperature-sensitive mutants loose adhesion, pseudohyphenation and cap-interaction. (A) Adhesion of haploid eIF4E mutants ts4-2, ts4-3, cdc33-1 in comparison to eIF4E wt. Plates were incubated at 30u or 35uC for 2 days, then washed under a gentle stream of water. (B) Pseudohyphenation of diploid eIF4E.

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