Detect IgA antibodies if present. T cell responses. Functional T cell

Detect IgA antibodies if present. T cell responses. Functional T cell responses to vaccination were measured by IFN-c ELISPOT. Figure 3D shows responses in the spleen and lungs to NP147?55 peptide, the immunodominant MHC I epitope of CD8+ T cells in BALB/c mice [45]. Immunization with PanAd3-NPM1 i.m. produced much higher frequencies of NP-specific T cells in the spleen than i.n. immunization, while the reverse was true in the lungs. These results show anatomical localization of the immune response, with i.n. more efficiently priming T cells in the respiratory tract, consistent with previous studies [20,21,44]. No response to NP was seen in mice immunized with constructs containing an irrelevant transgene (HIV gag), and none of the mice responded to the SARS209?21 K162 web control peptide. A pilot experiment showed protection against challenge four weeks post-vaccination with 109 vp of PanAd3-NPM1 given i.n. (data not shown). Thus the PanAd3 vector was promising, and we pursued more detailed studies.Neutralizing antibody assayAd5 and PanAd3 neutralizing antibody titers were assayed as previously described [31] with some modifications. Briefly, 3.56104 HEK293 cells per well were seeded in a 96 well plate and cultured for 2 days. Each adenoviral vector expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP) was incubated for 1 hour at 37uC alone or with serial dilutions of serum, and then added to the 95?00 confluent HEK293 cells and incubated for 1 hour at 37uC. Supernatant was then removed and replaced with 10 FCS in DMEM. SeAP expression was measured 24 hours later using the chemiluminescent substrate (CSPD), from the PhosphaLightTM kit (Tropix Cat No T1016, Applied Biosystems, Bedford, MA) without heat inactivation. Light emission (relative light units, RLU) was monitored 45 minutes after the addition of the CSPD substrate, using the Envision 2102 Multi-label reader (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA).Statistical analysisSurvival data for vaccine groups vs. controls were compared by Log-Rank analysis and the Bonferroni Method using PRISM (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA).Results Expression of influenza proteins from PanAd3 CASIN manufacturer vectorsThe PanAd3-NPM1 construct was designed using two conserved influenza antigens important in 1081537 human immunity, NP and M1. To analyze the level of transgene expression, HeLa cells were infected with PanAd3-NPM1 at various MOI, and Triton extracts prepared. Western blot analysis of the extracts was performed using a mouse hyperimmune serum raised against the NPM1 antigen. The 80 kD major band seen is consistent with the fusion NPM1 protein (Fig. 2). The 80 kD band was also detected if the Western blot was developed with a monoclonal antibody to NP (data not shown).Detailed characterization of immune responses to mucosally administered PanAd3 recombinantGiven the superiority of i.n. administration for inducing T cell responses in the lungs, we further explored the immune responses to vaccination by this mucosal route, using PanAd3-NPM1 or as a control PanAd3 with an irrelevant RSV insert. Mice were immunized with doses of 109,107, 1313429 or 105 vp per mouse. Antibody responses. Serum and BAL were analyzed for IgG and IgA antibodies to NP and M1. Figure 4A shows results for IgG antibodies to NP in serum and BAL. At the highest vaccine dose, 109 vp per mouse, strong IgG responses were seen for PanAd3-NPM1. If the vaccine dose given to the mice was reduced to 107 vp per mouse, antibody responses were greatly reduced in serum and absent in BA.Detect IgA antibodies if present. T cell responses. Functional T cell responses to vaccination were measured by IFN-c ELISPOT. Figure 3D shows responses in the spleen and lungs to NP147?55 peptide, the immunodominant MHC I epitope of CD8+ T cells in BALB/c mice [45]. Immunization with PanAd3-NPM1 i.m. produced much higher frequencies of NP-specific T cells in the spleen than i.n. immunization, while the reverse was true in the lungs. These results show anatomical localization of the immune response, with i.n. more efficiently priming T cells in the respiratory tract, consistent with previous studies [20,21,44]. No response to NP was seen in mice immunized with constructs containing an irrelevant transgene (HIV gag), and none of the mice responded to the SARS209?21 control peptide. A pilot experiment showed protection against challenge four weeks post-vaccination with 109 vp of PanAd3-NPM1 given i.n. (data not shown). Thus the PanAd3 vector was promising, and we pursued more detailed studies.Neutralizing antibody assayAd5 and PanAd3 neutralizing antibody titers were assayed as previously described [31] with some modifications. Briefly, 3.56104 HEK293 cells per well were seeded in a 96 well plate and cultured for 2 days. Each adenoviral vector expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP) was incubated for 1 hour at 37uC alone or with serial dilutions of serum, and then added to the 95?00 confluent HEK293 cells and incubated for 1 hour at 37uC. Supernatant was then removed and replaced with 10 FCS in DMEM. SeAP expression was measured 24 hours later using the chemiluminescent substrate (CSPD), from the PhosphaLightTM kit (Tropix Cat No T1016, Applied Biosystems, Bedford, MA) without heat inactivation. Light emission (relative light units, RLU) was monitored 45 minutes after the addition of the CSPD substrate, using the Envision 2102 Multi-label reader (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA).Statistical analysisSurvival data for vaccine groups vs. controls were compared by Log-Rank analysis and the Bonferroni Method using PRISM (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA).Results Expression of influenza proteins from PanAd3 vectorsThe PanAd3-NPM1 construct was designed using two conserved influenza antigens important in 1081537 human immunity, NP and M1. To analyze the level of transgene expression, HeLa cells were infected with PanAd3-NPM1 at various MOI, and Triton extracts prepared. Western blot analysis of the extracts was performed using a mouse hyperimmune serum raised against the NPM1 antigen. The 80 kD major band seen is consistent with the fusion NPM1 protein (Fig. 2). The 80 kD band was also detected if the Western blot was developed with a monoclonal antibody to NP (data not shown).Detailed characterization of immune responses to mucosally administered PanAd3 recombinantGiven the superiority of i.n. administration for inducing T cell responses in the lungs, we further explored the immune responses to vaccination by this mucosal route, using PanAd3-NPM1 or as a control PanAd3 with an irrelevant RSV insert. Mice were immunized with doses of 109,107, 1313429 or 105 vp per mouse. Antibody responses. Serum and BAL were analyzed for IgG and IgA antibodies to NP and M1. Figure 4A shows results for IgG antibodies to NP in serum and BAL. At the highest vaccine dose, 109 vp per mouse, strong IgG responses were seen for PanAd3-NPM1. If the vaccine dose given to the mice was reduced to 107 vp per mouse, antibody responses were greatly reduced in serum and absent in BA.

Leave a Reply