At 254/239 (Figure 4A). Despite the lack of evidence of binding of

At 254/239 (Figure 4A). Despite the lack of evidence of binding of USF1 or USF2 to the Ebox located between 2340/2315, overexpression of USF1 or USF2 resulted in approximately 5-fold or 10-fold increase in the promoter activity. However, deletion of the 22948146 sequences located between 2340 and 2315 did not significantly affect USF1- or USF2- mediated transcriptional activation of the human PC promoter, suggesting that the transactivation by these two factors may be mediated through the downstream MedChemExpress CB5083 E-boxes. In summary we have shown that: (i) the human PC gene possesses only two promoters, P1 and P2, which mediate transcription of the human PC gene similar to the rat and mouse genes; (ii) the P1 and P2 promoters are active in hepatocytes while only the P2 promoter is active in pancreatic b-cells; (iii) both CCAAT box and GC-boxes serve as activator sequences in b-cells; (iv) a cis-acting element located between 2340/2315 serves as binding site for b-cell specific transcription factor.Materials and Methods Reverse Transcriptase-polymerase Chain buy 79831-76-8 reaction (RTPCR)To identify the predominant isoform of the human PC mRNA in pancreatic beta cells, RT-PCR using human cDNA prepared from human islets and liver was performed. In this experiment, two sets of primers directed to various 59-UTR exons of the PC gene (GenBank NM_000920.3, NM_022172.2, BC011617.2) were designed and used in RT-PCR. Both primer sets consisted of the same sequence of the reverse primer (R-primer) and a different sequence of the forward primer (F-primer). The F-primer set no. 1 (59-ACCAACTGCCGTGATGCTGA-39) was designed to bind to the 59-UTR of variant 2 of human PC mRNA which is transcribed by the proximal promoter while the F-primer set no. 2 (59-GATAGTGTCTGCCTTCTGGAGAGC-39) was designed to bind to the 59-UTR region of variant 3 of the human PC mRNA which is transcribed by the distal promoter. The R-primer (59ACACACGGATGGCAATCTCACC-39) was designed to bind to exon 1 of human PC mRNA [33]. Tissues were homogenized with a Qiashredder (Qiagen) (islets) or using a Potter lvehjem homogenizer (liver) and RNA was prepared using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen). On-column DNase digestion was performed using the Qiagen RNase-Free DNase Set. cDNA was made with randomized primers with the Retroscript kit (AM1710) (Applied Biosystems). Quantitative PCR was performed on a BioRad MyIQ Real Time Detection System with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (RR041Q) (Takara). Human liver RNA was from a 51-year old male (Clontech, catalog number 636531) and a liver surgical specimen from a person (of unknown age and gender due to privacy protection) [34]. The PCR was carried out in a 20 mlreaction mixture containing 2 ml of cDNA, 1x PCR reaction buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.4, 50 mM KCl), 0.2 mM of each primer, 100 mM of each dNTP, 2 mM MgCl2, and 1 unit Taq DNADistal Promoter of the Human Pyruvate CarboxylaseFigure 5. Identification of positive regulatory element(s) located between 2365 and 2240 of the human PC P2 promoter. (A) Schematic diagram of 15 bp internal deletions of 2114/239 the human PC P2 promoter. (B) Transient transfections of a series of 25 bp internal deletion constructs into the INS-1 832/13 cell line and non-beta cell HEK293T cell line were performed to identify the positive regulatory sequences inDistal Promoter of the Human Pyruvate Carboxylasethe hP2 promoter. The luciferase activity of each construct was normalized with b-galactosidase activity. The normalized reporter activity obtained from each con.At 254/239 (Figure 4A). Despite the lack of evidence of binding of USF1 or USF2 to the Ebox located between 2340/2315, overexpression of USF1 or USF2 resulted in approximately 5-fold or 10-fold increase in the promoter activity. However, deletion of the 22948146 sequences located between 2340 and 2315 did not significantly affect USF1- or USF2- mediated transcriptional activation of the human PC promoter, suggesting that the transactivation by these two factors may be mediated through the downstream E-boxes. In summary we have shown that: (i) the human PC gene possesses only two promoters, P1 and P2, which mediate transcription of the human PC gene similar to the rat and mouse genes; (ii) the P1 and P2 promoters are active in hepatocytes while only the P2 promoter is active in pancreatic b-cells; (iii) both CCAAT box and GC-boxes serve as activator sequences in b-cells; (iv) a cis-acting element located between 2340/2315 serves as binding site for b-cell specific transcription factor.Materials and Methods Reverse Transcriptase-polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR)To identify the predominant isoform of the human PC mRNA in pancreatic beta cells, RT-PCR using human cDNA prepared from human islets and liver was performed. In this experiment, two sets of primers directed to various 59-UTR exons of the PC gene (GenBank NM_000920.3, NM_022172.2, BC011617.2) were designed and used in RT-PCR. Both primer sets consisted of the same sequence of the reverse primer (R-primer) and a different sequence of the forward primer (F-primer). The F-primer set no. 1 (59-ACCAACTGCCGTGATGCTGA-39) was designed to bind to the 59-UTR of variant 2 of human PC mRNA which is transcribed by the proximal promoter while the F-primer set no. 2 (59-GATAGTGTCTGCCTTCTGGAGAGC-39) was designed to bind to the 59-UTR region of variant 3 of the human PC mRNA which is transcribed by the distal promoter. The R-primer (59ACACACGGATGGCAATCTCACC-39) was designed to bind to exon 1 of human PC mRNA [33]. Tissues were homogenized with a Qiashredder (Qiagen) (islets) or using a Potter lvehjem homogenizer (liver) and RNA was prepared using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen). On-column DNase digestion was performed using the Qiagen RNase-Free DNase Set. cDNA was made with randomized primers with the Retroscript kit (AM1710) (Applied Biosystems). Quantitative PCR was performed on a BioRad MyIQ Real Time Detection System with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (RR041Q) (Takara). Human liver RNA was from a 51-year old male (Clontech, catalog number 636531) and a liver surgical specimen from a person (of unknown age and gender due to privacy protection) [34]. The PCR was carried out in a 20 mlreaction mixture containing 2 ml of cDNA, 1x PCR reaction buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.4, 50 mM KCl), 0.2 mM of each primer, 100 mM of each dNTP, 2 mM MgCl2, and 1 unit Taq DNADistal Promoter of the Human Pyruvate CarboxylaseFigure 5. Identification of positive regulatory element(s) located between 2365 and 2240 of the human PC P2 promoter. (A) Schematic diagram of 15 bp internal deletions of 2114/239 the human PC P2 promoter. (B) Transient transfections of a series of 25 bp internal deletion constructs into the INS-1 832/13 cell line and non-beta cell HEK293T cell line were performed to identify the positive regulatory sequences inDistal Promoter of the Human Pyruvate Carboxylasethe hP2 promoter. The luciferase activity of each construct was normalized with b-galactosidase activity. The normalized reporter activity obtained from each con.

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