Ases – OPA1 and the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 are required

Ases – OPA1 and the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 are required for the fusion of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, respectively in mammals. In yeast the OPA1 ortholog Mgm1 and the mitofusin ortholog Fzo1 play similar roles [25,30?3]. Mgm1 is targeted to the inner membrane by a bipartite targeting sequence that consists of an Nterminal signal sequence followed by hydrophobic amino acid clusters. The hydrophobic clusters act as stop-transfer sequence that prevents further translocation across the inner membrane. This bipartite targeting sequence is processed in two cleavage steps [34,35]. The N-terminal 9-kDa signal sequence of Mgm1 is initially cleaved by MPP and the next processing step is catalyzed by Pcp1, a protein that shares a high degree of sequence similarity with Rhomboid-type serine proteases [34]. The 25033180 main aim of this study is to map the dynamin B presequence and find out the essential features required for mitochondrial targeting. D. discoideum dynamin B (GenBank XP_642447) is initially produced as preprotein with long aminoterminal presequence having unusually long asparagine stretch.Here, we describe the characterization of the dynamin B leader sequence. We identified a short sequence within the dynamin B presequence that can serve as mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). The presence of the long poly-asparagine repeat with in the presequence has no influence on the targeting efficiency of the dynamin B presequence. Moreover, our results show that the dynamin B presequence can drive the efficient import of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix of mammalian cells, indicating a highly conserved underlying mechanism.Materials and Methods Cell CultureD. 23115181 discoideum AX2 cells were grown in HL-5C medium (Formedium) at 21uC. Cells were transformed with expression constructs by electroporation and transformants were selected in presence of 10 mg/ml G-418 (Formedium) as described [36] and checked for expression. Mammalian HEK293T cells were maintained in DMEM medium supplemented with 10 fetal calf serum, 2 mM Lglutamine and penicillin/streptomycin at 37uC in the presence of 5 CO2. For GFP expression, cells were grown in 35 mm plate until they reached 60?0 confluency and transfected transientlyDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceFigure 3. Residues 28?4 within the dynamin B presequence (NTS) are required for mitochondrial targeting. (A ) AX2 cells were transformed with EYFP or with the ML 240 web indicated NTS fragments fused to EYFP. Images of live cells were taken by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Diffuse staining indicates cytoplasmic localization and granular staining indicates mitochondrial localization. Scale bars, 10 mm. (J ) Mitochondrial targetedDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting Sequencesequences undergo processing. (J) All non-targeted constructs run as a single band according to their size. GFP immuno-blot with D. discoideum whole cell lysates derived from untransformed cells (AX2), cells producing EYFP and EYFP-tagged constructs NTS DN2, NTS DN3 and NTS DI3. (K) GFP immuno-blot with D. discoideum whole cell lysates derived from untransformed cells and cells producing EYFP fusion 35013-72-0 site carrying NTS, NTS DN1, NTS DC, NTS DI1 and NTS DI2 of cells is shown. Mitochondrial targeted constructs undergo processing, the upper band corresponds to unprocessed preprotein and the lower bands correspond to the processed products showing that at least in the case of NTS DC and NTS DI1 two cleavage steps occur during processing (or alter.Ases – OPA1 and the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 are required for the fusion of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, respectively in mammals. In yeast the OPA1 ortholog Mgm1 and the mitofusin ortholog Fzo1 play similar roles [25,30?3]. Mgm1 is targeted to the inner membrane by a bipartite targeting sequence that consists of an Nterminal signal sequence followed by hydrophobic amino acid clusters. The hydrophobic clusters act as stop-transfer sequence that prevents further translocation across the inner membrane. This bipartite targeting sequence is processed in two cleavage steps [34,35]. The N-terminal 9-kDa signal sequence of Mgm1 is initially cleaved by MPP and the next processing step is catalyzed by Pcp1, a protein that shares a high degree of sequence similarity with Rhomboid-type serine proteases [34]. The 25033180 main aim of this study is to map the dynamin B presequence and find out the essential features required for mitochondrial targeting. D. discoideum dynamin B (GenBank XP_642447) is initially produced as preprotein with long aminoterminal presequence having unusually long asparagine stretch.Here, we describe the characterization of the dynamin B leader sequence. We identified a short sequence within the dynamin B presequence that can serve as mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). The presence of the long poly-asparagine repeat with in the presequence has no influence on the targeting efficiency of the dynamin B presequence. Moreover, our results show that the dynamin B presequence can drive the efficient import of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix of mammalian cells, indicating a highly conserved underlying mechanism.Materials and Methods Cell CultureD. 23115181 discoideum AX2 cells were grown in HL-5C medium (Formedium) at 21uC. Cells were transformed with expression constructs by electroporation and transformants were selected in presence of 10 mg/ml G-418 (Formedium) as described [36] and checked for expression. Mammalian HEK293T cells were maintained in DMEM medium supplemented with 10 fetal calf serum, 2 mM Lglutamine and penicillin/streptomycin at 37uC in the presence of 5 CO2. For GFP expression, cells were grown in 35 mm plate until they reached 60?0 confluency and transfected transientlyDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceFigure 3. Residues 28?4 within the dynamin B presequence (NTS) are required for mitochondrial targeting. (A ) AX2 cells were transformed with EYFP or with the indicated NTS fragments fused to EYFP. Images of live cells were taken by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Diffuse staining indicates cytoplasmic localization and granular staining indicates mitochondrial localization. Scale bars, 10 mm. (J ) Mitochondrial targetedDictyostelium Mitochondrial Targeting Sequencesequences undergo processing. (J) All non-targeted constructs run as a single band according to their size. GFP immuno-blot with D. discoideum whole cell lysates derived from untransformed cells (AX2), cells producing EYFP and EYFP-tagged constructs NTS DN2, NTS DN3 and NTS DI3. (K) GFP immuno-blot with D. discoideum whole cell lysates derived from untransformed cells and cells producing EYFP fusion carrying NTS, NTS DN1, NTS DC, NTS DI1 and NTS DI2 of cells is shown. Mitochondrial targeted constructs undergo processing, the upper band corresponds to unprocessed preprotein and the lower bands correspond to the processed products showing that at least in the case of NTS DC and NTS DI1 two cleavage steps occur during processing (or alter.

Leave a Reply