O observed that the THP-1 cells stimulated by EDL933 showedRole of

O observed that the THP-1 cells stimulated by EDL933 11089-65-9 showedRole of ASC, NLRP3, and Caspase-1 in EHEC O157:H7induced IL-1b ProductionThe involvement of the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3, and caspase-1 in the EHEC O157:H7-induced release of IL-1b was assessed using siRNA and immunoblotting. The results showed that the levels of IL-1b in supernatants in cells treated with ASC, caspase-1, or NLRP3 siRNA were all significantly lower than those of cells treated with control siRNA infected with EDL933, DpO157, DehxA, and DehxA/pehxA (Figure 5A, 5B). This suggests that ASC, NLRP3, and caspase-1 are required for the EHEC O157:H7-induced release of IL-1b but the evidence is not sufficient to conclude that EHEC O157:H7induced IL-1b production takes place in a ASC-, NLRP3-, or caspase-1-dependent manner in this siRNA system.Expression of Inflammasome Components in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 CellsTo explore if EHEC O157:H7 activates one or more inflammasomes, we assessed the expression of several inflammasome components in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 cells by RT-PCR using specific primers. The results showed that all target genes were expressed in THP-1 cells infected with Eliglustat web different strains. However, in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1, only the NLRP3 and IL-1b transcripts were found to be upregulated. However, EhxA had no effect on the mRNA expression of any inflammasome component in THP-1 cells infected with EDL933 (Figure 6).Enterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 3. Effects of EHEC O157:H7 enterohemolysin on the production of IL-1b. Differentiated THP-1 cells were infected with EDL933, DpO157, DehxA, DehxA/pehxA, and LPS for 2 or 4 h. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, chemokine CC motif ligand 5 (RANETS/CCL5), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), and Interferon-gamma (IFN-c) were measured using ELISA. Values are expressed as mean 6 S.D. of triplicate experiments. Significant differences (* P,0.05) were indicated. n.s., no significant differences (P.0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gCorrelation between EhxA-induced Cytotoxicity and IL1b Secretion by THP-1 CellsAlthough we have ruled out the possibility that cytotoxicity of EHEC O157:H7 is the main cause of the increase in the release of IL-1b into the supernatant, we still noticed a significant positive correlation between IL-1b production and the release of LDH in the supernatants of THP-1 cells infected with different strains (r = 0.991, P,0.01) (Figure 7). This suggests that cytotoxicity ofEhxA might contribute to some extent to the higher levels of extracellular IL-1b production in supernatant from EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 cells but that the effect of EhxA on processing the pro-IL-1b to mature IL-1b is still the main mechanism by which mature Il-1b is released.Enterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 4. Pro-IL-1b and mature IL-1b in cell extract and supernatant as visualized by Western blotting. At 4 h after infection, pro-IL-1b and IL-1b in cell extracts (CX) and supernatants (SN) were visualized by Western blot analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gDiscussionAlthough there is a growing body of evidence regarding the virulence factors of EHEC O157:H7, such as Stxs and flagellin in epithelial cells, the role of specific Ehx encoding on plasmid ofEHEC O157:H7 in pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. It is likely that the EHEC-Ehx is expressed during human infection and subsequent disease, as patients suffe.O observed that the THP-1 cells stimulated by EDL933 showedRole of ASC, NLRP3, and Caspase-1 in EHEC O157:H7induced IL-1b ProductionThe involvement of the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3, and caspase-1 in the EHEC O157:H7-induced release of IL-1b was assessed using siRNA and immunoblotting. The results showed that the levels of IL-1b in supernatants in cells treated with ASC, caspase-1, or NLRP3 siRNA were all significantly lower than those of cells treated with control siRNA infected with EDL933, DpO157, DehxA, and DehxA/pehxA (Figure 5A, 5B). This suggests that ASC, NLRP3, and caspase-1 are required for the EHEC O157:H7-induced release of IL-1b but the evidence is not sufficient to conclude that EHEC O157:H7induced IL-1b production takes place in a ASC-, NLRP3-, or caspase-1-dependent manner in this siRNA system.Expression of Inflammasome Components in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 CellsTo explore if EHEC O157:H7 activates one or more inflammasomes, we assessed the expression of several inflammasome components in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 cells by RT-PCR using specific primers. The results showed that all target genes were expressed in THP-1 cells infected with different strains. However, in EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1, only the NLRP3 and IL-1b transcripts were found to be upregulated. However, EhxA had no effect on the mRNA expression of any inflammasome component in THP-1 cells infected with EDL933 (Figure 6).Enterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 3. Effects of EHEC O157:H7 enterohemolysin on the production of IL-1b. Differentiated THP-1 cells were infected with EDL933, DpO157, DehxA, DehxA/pehxA, and LPS for 2 or 4 h. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, chemokine CC motif ligand 5 (RANETS/CCL5), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), and Interferon-gamma (IFN-c) were measured using ELISA. Values are expressed as mean 6 S.D. of triplicate experiments. Significant differences (* P,0.05) were indicated. n.s., no significant differences (P.0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gCorrelation between EhxA-induced Cytotoxicity and IL1b Secretion by THP-1 CellsAlthough we have ruled out the possibility that cytotoxicity of EHEC O157:H7 is the main cause of the increase in the release of IL-1b into the supernatant, we still noticed a significant positive correlation between IL-1b production and the release of LDH in the supernatants of THP-1 cells infected with different strains (r = 0.991, P,0.01) (Figure 7). This suggests that cytotoxicity ofEhxA might contribute to some extent to the higher levels of extracellular IL-1b production in supernatant from EHEC O157:H7-infected THP-1 cells but that the effect of EhxA on processing the pro-IL-1b to mature IL-1b is still the main mechanism by which mature Il-1b is released.Enterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 4. Pro-IL-1b and mature IL-1b in cell extract and supernatant as visualized by Western blotting. At 4 h after infection, pro-IL-1b and IL-1b in cell extracts (CX) and supernatants (SN) were visualized by Western blot analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gDiscussionAlthough there is a growing body of evidence regarding the virulence factors of EHEC O157:H7, such as Stxs and flagellin in epithelial cells, the role of specific Ehx encoding on plasmid ofEHEC O157:H7 in pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. It is likely that the EHEC-Ehx is expressed during human infection and subsequent disease, as patients suffe.

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