Ogythe IT-group. There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels

Ogythe IT-group. There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and lipid profiles at the baseline between the IT- and the OT-group (Table 1). Mean blood glucose concentrations significantly decreased LY-2409021 site during IT (Table 1; Figure 1a). Although lipid-lowering therapy was not modified, serum cholesterol concentrations diminished after short term of IT and did not rebound at follow up (Table 1). Figure 1 presents the time course of daily insulin doses (b) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (c) during the inpatient treatment. At follow up (181649 days after the initiation of IT) a reduction in HbA1c (8.360.4 ; p = 0.004) documented 12926553 improved metabolic control (Table 2). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between albumin-creatinine-quotient and the following clinical features: duration of the disease (Pearsons r = 0.59; p = 0.012), plasma glucose (Pearsons r = 0.74; p = 0.001) and HbA1c levels (Pearsons r = 0.51; p = 0.036) as well as MYCL concentration at day 1 (Pearsons r = 0.52; p = 0.029).Cardiac Function and MorphologyTen days after the initiation of IT alterations in myocardial mass (+13 ) and wall thickness at the end-diastole (+13 ) were observed (Table 2). Moreover, cardiac remodeling, displayed by concentricity, emerged after the initiation of IT (Table 2). However, left ventricular systolic function did not change during the study course (Table 2). In 12 patients E/A ratio was below 1 indicating diastolic dysfunction, which remained stable under IT. The rise in myocardial mass persisted throughout the follow up period (Table 2).Cardiac and Hepatic Lipid Content during and after ITAfter 10 days of IT MYCL content increased by 80 (p = 0.008; Figure 2a), while IHCL tended to Methionine enkephalin decrease, but did not change significantly (p = 0.132; Figure 2b). In addition, mean blood glucose concentrations on day 1 were closely associated with MYCL content on day 10 (Pearsons r = 0.80; p = 0.005; Figure 3). Moreover, 181649 days after IT MYCL returned to baseline (0.3760.06 of water signal; p = 23727046 0.692; Figure 2a), whereas IHLC decreased by 31 (5.5561.93 of water signal; p = 0.000; Figure 2b).DiscussionThe present study shows that the initiation of IT in patients with long standing T2DM and bad metabolic control due to secondary failure of oral glucose lowering therapy is associated with an acute but transient rise in MYCL content and myocardial wall thickness. Furthermore, the observed changes were initially linked to myocardial hypertrophy with preservation of cardiac function. We have previously shown that insulin infusion designed to achieve near normoglycemia in patients with T2DM augments ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver [25,26]. Studies in animal models of T2DM have shown that derangements of myocardial substrate metabolism induce cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Especially, excessive fatty acid uptake, oxidation and/or storage are considered to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy [27?9]. Moreover, studies in humans illustrate that the myocardial triacylglycerol pool is highly dynamic [14,30?2], significantly contributes to mitochondrial oxidation [33] and thus represents an important biomarker for underlying defects in metabolism [34]. Up to date contradictive results exist concerning the potential direct effects of myocardial steatosis on cardiac function in humans. McGavock at al. has not observed a correlation between myocardial steat.Ogythe IT-group. There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and lipid profiles at the baseline between the IT- and the OT-group (Table 1). Mean blood glucose concentrations significantly decreased during IT (Table 1; Figure 1a). Although lipid-lowering therapy was not modified, serum cholesterol concentrations diminished after short term of IT and did not rebound at follow up (Table 1). Figure 1 presents the time course of daily insulin doses (b) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (c) during the inpatient treatment. At follow up (181649 days after the initiation of IT) a reduction in HbA1c (8.360.4 ; p = 0.004) documented 12926553 improved metabolic control (Table 2). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between albumin-creatinine-quotient and the following clinical features: duration of the disease (Pearsons r = 0.59; p = 0.012), plasma glucose (Pearsons r = 0.74; p = 0.001) and HbA1c levels (Pearsons r = 0.51; p = 0.036) as well as MYCL concentration at day 1 (Pearsons r = 0.52; p = 0.029).Cardiac Function and MorphologyTen days after the initiation of IT alterations in myocardial mass (+13 ) and wall thickness at the end-diastole (+13 ) were observed (Table 2). Moreover, cardiac remodeling, displayed by concentricity, emerged after the initiation of IT (Table 2). However, left ventricular systolic function did not change during the study course (Table 2). In 12 patients E/A ratio was below 1 indicating diastolic dysfunction, which remained stable under IT. The rise in myocardial mass persisted throughout the follow up period (Table 2).Cardiac and Hepatic Lipid Content during and after ITAfter 10 days of IT MYCL content increased by 80 (p = 0.008; Figure 2a), while IHCL tended to decrease, but did not change significantly (p = 0.132; Figure 2b). In addition, mean blood glucose concentrations on day 1 were closely associated with MYCL content on day 10 (Pearsons r = 0.80; p = 0.005; Figure 3). Moreover, 181649 days after IT MYCL returned to baseline (0.3760.06 of water signal; p = 23727046 0.692; Figure 2a), whereas IHLC decreased by 31 (5.5561.93 of water signal; p = 0.000; Figure 2b).DiscussionThe present study shows that the initiation of IT in patients with long standing T2DM and bad metabolic control due to secondary failure of oral glucose lowering therapy is associated with an acute but transient rise in MYCL content and myocardial wall thickness. Furthermore, the observed changes were initially linked to myocardial hypertrophy with preservation of cardiac function. We have previously shown that insulin infusion designed to achieve near normoglycemia in patients with T2DM augments ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver [25,26]. Studies in animal models of T2DM have shown that derangements of myocardial substrate metabolism induce cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Especially, excessive fatty acid uptake, oxidation and/or storage are considered to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy [27?9]. Moreover, studies in humans illustrate that the myocardial triacylglycerol pool is highly dynamic [14,30?2], significantly contributes to mitochondrial oxidation [33] and thus represents an important biomarker for underlying defects in metabolism [34]. Up to date contradictive results exist concerning the potential direct effects of myocardial steatosis on cardiac function in humans. McGavock at al. has not observed a correlation between myocardial steat.

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