Of CD20 and disrupted B-cell zones in the spleen. Our findings

Of CD20 and disrupted B-cell zones in the spleen. Our findings are in accord with the report that soluble BAFF levels are inversely correlated with peripheral B cell numbers and the expression of BAFF receptors [23]. The findings are also consistent with the report of increased plasma BAFF levels in patients with autoimmune disorders treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab [24,25]. Macrophage attractant protein (MCP1) and the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 have been ascribed a role in recruiting leukocytes into developing atherosclerotic lesions [26]. In contrast to our previous report where MCP1 and VCAM-1 expression were reduced in BAFFR2/2 ApoE2/2 mice 12926553 [12], anti-BAFFR antibody did not affect MCP1 and VCAM-1 expression in the anti-BAFFR antibody treated mice. These differing results may reflect the difference between long-term depletion of BAFFR imposed by genetic knock-out versus short-term blockade of BAFFR by the monoclonal antibody. However, in agreement with our previous report where a mature B2 deficient environment arising from genetic BAFFR knockout generated less infiltrating lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions [12], we also found less CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the anti-BAFFR antibody treated ApoE2/2 mice. Given that B2 cells are 256373-96-3 biological activity professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that can present antigen to CD4+ T cells and cross-present to CD8+ T cells [27], depletion of these B2 cells may be responsible for the reduced infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into atherosclerotic lesions. Reduced infiltration of these T cells into aortic lesions may have contributed to the reduction in atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed transfer of CD4+ T cells to immunodeficient mice have been reported to aggravate atherosclerosis development [28]. Further, antigen presentation by APCs to CD4+ T cells in the arterial wall has been reported to cause local T cell activation and production of AKT inhibitor 2 proinflammatory cytokines that promote atherosclerosis by maintaining chronic inflammation and induction of foam cell formation [29]. Proinflammatory cytokines produced in atherosclerotic lesions contribute to local inflammatory responses and progression to unstable atherosclerotic plaques. There is increasing recognition of cytokines produced by B cells having a key role as regulators of immunity, especially in local inflammatory responses [30]. Indeed B cells produce different cytokines, depending on their environment, to modulate local 1516647 immune responses [30?2]. As well other immune cells that have infiltrated the atherosclerotic plaque such as macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also produce proinflammatory cytokines [33?5]. These cytokines contribute towards local inflammation and may act on their own cells in an autocrineDecreased Arterial Inflammation in BAFFR-antibodytreated ApoE2/2 MiceReal-time PCR analysis revealed that proinflammatory cytokines IL1b, TGFb, TNFa and IFNc were reduced by 37 , 25 , 23 and 36 respectively in anti-BAFFR antibody treated mice compared to control mice ([all P,0.05]; Figure 4A). However, expressions of MCP1, MIF and VCAM-1 were unaffected in the BAFFR antibody treated mice (Figure 4B).Immunoglobulin Production in BAFFR-antibody Treated ApoE2/2 MiceThe finding that BAFFR antibody selectively depletes B2 B cells without affecting peritoneal B1a cells prompted us to determine effects on the plasma levels of total antibodies and MDA-LDL specific antibodies. ELISA determination showed that plasma levels of immunoglobulins.Of CD20 and disrupted B-cell zones in the spleen. Our findings are in accord with the report that soluble BAFF levels are inversely correlated with peripheral B cell numbers and the expression of BAFF receptors [23]. The findings are also consistent with the report of increased plasma BAFF levels in patients with autoimmune disorders treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab [24,25]. Macrophage attractant protein (MCP1) and the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 have been ascribed a role in recruiting leukocytes into developing atherosclerotic lesions [26]. In contrast to our previous report where MCP1 and VCAM-1 expression were reduced in BAFFR2/2 ApoE2/2 mice 12926553 [12], anti-BAFFR antibody did not affect MCP1 and VCAM-1 expression in the anti-BAFFR antibody treated mice. These differing results may reflect the difference between long-term depletion of BAFFR imposed by genetic knock-out versus short-term blockade of BAFFR by the monoclonal antibody. However, in agreement with our previous report where a mature B2 deficient environment arising from genetic BAFFR knockout generated less infiltrating lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions [12], we also found less CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the anti-BAFFR antibody treated ApoE2/2 mice. Given that B2 cells are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that can present antigen to CD4+ T cells and cross-present to CD8+ T cells [27], depletion of these B2 cells may be responsible for the reduced infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into atherosclerotic lesions. Reduced infiltration of these T cells into aortic lesions may have contributed to the reduction in atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed transfer of CD4+ T cells to immunodeficient mice have been reported to aggravate atherosclerosis development [28]. Further, antigen presentation by APCs to CD4+ T cells in the arterial wall has been reported to cause local T cell activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines that promote atherosclerosis by maintaining chronic inflammation and induction of foam cell formation [29]. Proinflammatory cytokines produced in atherosclerotic lesions contribute to local inflammatory responses and progression to unstable atherosclerotic plaques. There is increasing recognition of cytokines produced by B cells having a key role as regulators of immunity, especially in local inflammatory responses [30]. Indeed B cells produce different cytokines, depending on their environment, to modulate local 1516647 immune responses [30?2]. As well other immune cells that have infiltrated the atherosclerotic plaque such as macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also produce proinflammatory cytokines [33?5]. These cytokines contribute towards local inflammation and may act on their own cells in an autocrineDecreased Arterial Inflammation in BAFFR-antibodytreated ApoE2/2 MiceReal-time PCR analysis revealed that proinflammatory cytokines IL1b, TGFb, TNFa and IFNc were reduced by 37 , 25 , 23 and 36 respectively in anti-BAFFR antibody treated mice compared to control mice ([all P,0.05]; Figure 4A). However, expressions of MCP1, MIF and VCAM-1 were unaffected in the BAFFR antibody treated mice (Figure 4B).Immunoglobulin Production in BAFFR-antibody Treated ApoE2/2 MiceThe finding that BAFFR antibody selectively depletes B2 B cells without affecting peritoneal B1a cells prompted us to determine effects on the plasma levels of total antibodies and MDA-LDL specific antibodies. ELISA determination showed that plasma levels of immunoglobulins.

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