N (equivalent to WMH in MRI) of theOH and WMH in

N (equivalent to WMH in MRI) of theOH and WMH in Mild Dementiabrain [26], suggesting that the absolute BP level might be of importance. In this study we wanted to explore the association between OH and WMH in older people with mild dementia. We hypothesized that systolic and/or diastolic BP drop at baseline are positively correlated with total WMH volumes and Scheltens deep WMH scores, and that having OH, or standing systolic BP at or below 110 mm Hg at baseline is independently associated with having more 1676428 severe WMH on imaging. Since OH appears to be particularly common in Lewy body dementias [27], we tested this association separately.[20]. The diagnosis of OH was based solely on the baseline BP measurements. By contrast, a diagnosis of hypertension was based on the medical history and the medical records only, and not on the baseline BP measurements. The assessments took place during normal office hours (i.e. 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.).APOEApolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were TA01 biological activity determined in a subgroup. First, genomic DNA was extracted from 200 ml EDTA-blood using the QIAamp 96 DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). For detection of the APOE e2, e3 and e4 genotypes, which are determined by the combination of two SNP’s (rs7412 and rs429358), we employed the LightCycler APOE Mutation Detection Kit (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), using the assay according to the instructions of the manufacturer.Methods SubjectsConsecutive referrals to dementia clinics in the counties of Rogaland and Hordaland in western Norway from March 2005 to March 2007 were screened, and patients with a first time diagnosis of mild dementia, i.e. a minimum Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 20 were included. From April 2007 we selectively recruited patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD) fulfilling the aforementioned criteria of mild dementia. A total of 246 patients have completed baseline assessments, the last of whom was included in May 2011. In the current study, we included those who had both OH measurements and available MRI scans with adequate scan quality.Assessment of Physical ComorbidityWe employed the “Cumulative Illness Rating Scale” (CIRS) for assessment of physical comorbidity. This instrument measures the chronic medical illness burden, while also taking into account the severity of chronic diseases. Scoring was done by an experienced geriatrician, in accordance with guidelines [35].MRIPatients were scanned at three different sites; Stavanger University Hospital, Haugesund Hospital, and Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital (Bergen). 1.5 T scanners were used in all three centres (Philips Intera in Stavanger and Haugesund, and in Bergen a 1.5T GE Signa Dimethylenastron supplier Excite scanner). In each centre, MRI was done on the same scanner during the entire study period, and a common study imaging protocol was used. For technical details, see Soennesyn et al. [9]. A phantom study, using the same three scanners, of three human volunteers was done for the DemWest study and has recently been published [36]. This was done to assess the variability between scanners and also to assess intrascanner variability. Cronbach’s alpha between the three MRI scanners, as well as between two points in time, all exceeded 0.95, indicating excellent reliabilities. The MRI scans were performed within a median interval of 2 months (interquartile range 1? months) from the baseline clinical examination. Volumetric assessment of WMH. Image an.N (equivalent to WMH in MRI) of theOH and WMH in Mild Dementiabrain [26], suggesting that the absolute BP level might be of importance. In this study we wanted to explore the association between OH and WMH in older people with mild dementia. We hypothesized that systolic and/or diastolic BP drop at baseline are positively correlated with total WMH volumes and Scheltens deep WMH scores, and that having OH, or standing systolic BP at or below 110 mm Hg at baseline is independently associated with having more 1676428 severe WMH on imaging. Since OH appears to be particularly common in Lewy body dementias [27], we tested this association separately.[20]. The diagnosis of OH was based solely on the baseline BP measurements. By contrast, a diagnosis of hypertension was based on the medical history and the medical records only, and not on the baseline BP measurements. The assessments took place during normal office hours (i.e. 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.).APOEApolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were determined in a subgroup. First, genomic DNA was extracted from 200 ml EDTA-blood using the QIAamp 96 DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). For detection of the APOE e2, e3 and e4 genotypes, which are determined by the combination of two SNP’s (rs7412 and rs429358), we employed the LightCycler APOE Mutation Detection Kit (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), using the assay according to the instructions of the manufacturer.Methods SubjectsConsecutive referrals to dementia clinics in the counties of Rogaland and Hordaland in western Norway from March 2005 to March 2007 were screened, and patients with a first time diagnosis of mild dementia, i.e. a minimum Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 20 were included. From April 2007 we selectively recruited patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD) fulfilling the aforementioned criteria of mild dementia. A total of 246 patients have completed baseline assessments, the last of whom was included in May 2011. In the current study, we included those who had both OH measurements and available MRI scans with adequate scan quality.Assessment of Physical ComorbidityWe employed the “Cumulative Illness Rating Scale” (CIRS) for assessment of physical comorbidity. This instrument measures the chronic medical illness burden, while also taking into account the severity of chronic diseases. Scoring was done by an experienced geriatrician, in accordance with guidelines [35].MRIPatients were scanned at three different sites; Stavanger University Hospital, Haugesund Hospital, and Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital (Bergen). 1.5 T scanners were used in all three centres (Philips Intera in Stavanger and Haugesund, and in Bergen a 1.5T GE Signa Excite scanner). In each centre, MRI was done on the same scanner during the entire study period, and a common study imaging protocol was used. For technical details, see Soennesyn et al. [9]. A phantom study, using the same three scanners, of three human volunteers was done for the DemWest study and has recently been published [36]. This was done to assess the variability between scanners and also to assess intrascanner variability. Cronbach’s alpha between the three MRI scanners, as well as between two points in time, all exceeded 0.95, indicating excellent reliabilities. The MRI scans were performed within a median interval of 2 months (interquartile range 1? months) from the baseline clinical examination. Volumetric assessment of WMH. Image an.

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