Ked as the worst of the eight genes in the 13 tissues

Ked as the worst of the eight genes in the 13 tissues tested.Gene Expressions in Marmoset by Accurate qPCRFigure 1. Absolute copy numbers of candidate reference genes. The expression level of each gene in 13 tissues is shown as a logarithmic histogram of absolute copy numbers per mg of total RNA. Means and standard deviations of four Epigenetic Reader Domain individuals are indicated. GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase; ACTB: actin, beta; rRNA: 18S ribosomal RNA; B2M: beta-2-microglobulin; UBC: ubiquitin C; HPRT: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1; SDHA: succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A; TBP: TATA-box binding protein. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gComparison of gene expression levels between human and common marmoset leukocytesSubsequently, we analyzed gene expression levels of four CD antigens (CD3e, CD4, CD8a, and CD20) and ten cytokines,interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12b, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-c and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, in peripheral blood leukocytes from humans and common marmosets (Figure 4). The sequences of primers specific for theseFigure 2. Gene expression Autophagy stability and pairwise variation of candidate reference genes using geNorm analysis. (A) and (B): Average gene expression stability values M of the remaining reference genes during stepwise exclusion of the least stable gene in the different tissue panels are shown. Data are divided into two figures to avoid closely-packed lines. See also figure 3 for the ranking of genes according to their expression stability. (C) Pairwise variation analysis was used to determine the optimal number of reference genes for use in qPCR data normalization. The recommended limit for V value is 0.15, the point at which it is unnecessary to include additional genes in a normalization strategy. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gGene Expressions in Marmoset by Accurate qPCRFigure 3. Ranking of gene expression stability of candidate reference genes using geNorm analysis. Candidate reference genes are ranked in order of stability for each tissue with the two most stable genes at the left and the least stable at the right. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gimmune-related genes are shown in Table 2. The normalization factor for common marmoset leukocytes was calculated using GAPDH and UBC based on the geNorm analysis as described above. For human leukocytes, we found that the expression of all eight genes were stable (M value = 0.363), of which ACTB and HPRT had the best score (M value = 0.163, V2/3 = 0.062) and were selected for use. The expression levels of CD4 and IL-4 were significantly lower in common marmosets than in humans while those of IL-10, IL-12b and IFN-c were significantly higher in common marmosets compared with humans. Of interest, the expression level of IL-4 was notably lower in common marmosets than humans, and was close to the detection limit. There was no statistical difference in the expression levels of the other genes tested between common marmosets and humans.Difference of CD4/CD8 ratio between humans and common marmosetsWe calculated ratios of the expression levels of CD4 to CD8 (CD4/CD8 ratio) in human and common marmoset leukocytes (Figure 5, left panel). CD4/CD8 ratios were significantly higher inhuman leukocytes compared with common marmoset leukocytes (mean 6 sd, 0.5960.22 vs. 20.4960.41, P,0.01). To confirm the difference in CD4/CD8 ratios, we examined the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ in CD3+ T cells by flow cytometric analysis.Ked as the worst of the eight genes in the 13 tissues tested.Gene Expressions in Marmoset by Accurate qPCRFigure 1. Absolute copy numbers of candidate reference genes. The expression level of each gene in 13 tissues is shown as a logarithmic histogram of absolute copy numbers per mg of total RNA. Means and standard deviations of four individuals are indicated. GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase; ACTB: actin, beta; rRNA: 18S ribosomal RNA; B2M: beta-2-microglobulin; UBC: ubiquitin C; HPRT: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1; SDHA: succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A; TBP: TATA-box binding protein. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gComparison of gene expression levels between human and common marmoset leukocytesSubsequently, we analyzed gene expression levels of four CD antigens (CD3e, CD4, CD8a, and CD20) and ten cytokines,interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12b, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-c and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, in peripheral blood leukocytes from humans and common marmosets (Figure 4). The sequences of primers specific for theseFigure 2. Gene expression stability and pairwise variation of candidate reference genes using geNorm analysis. (A) and (B): Average gene expression stability values M of the remaining reference genes during stepwise exclusion of the least stable gene in the different tissue panels are shown. Data are divided into two figures to avoid closely-packed lines. See also figure 3 for the ranking of genes according to their expression stability. (C) Pairwise variation analysis was used to determine the optimal number of reference genes for use in qPCR data normalization. The recommended limit for V value is 0.15, the point at which it is unnecessary to include additional genes in a normalization strategy. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gGene Expressions in Marmoset by Accurate qPCRFigure 3. Ranking of gene expression stability of candidate reference genes using geNorm analysis. Candidate reference genes are ranked in order of stability for each tissue with the two most stable genes at the left and the least stable at the right. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056296.gimmune-related genes are shown in Table 2. The normalization factor for common marmoset leukocytes was calculated using GAPDH and UBC based on the geNorm analysis as described above. For human leukocytes, we found that the expression of all eight genes were stable (M value = 0.363), of which ACTB and HPRT had the best score (M value = 0.163, V2/3 = 0.062) and were selected for use. The expression levels of CD4 and IL-4 were significantly lower in common marmosets than in humans while those of IL-10, IL-12b and IFN-c were significantly higher in common marmosets compared with humans. Of interest, the expression level of IL-4 was notably lower in common marmosets than humans, and was close to the detection limit. There was no statistical difference in the expression levels of the other genes tested between common marmosets and humans.Difference of CD4/CD8 ratio between humans and common marmosetsWe calculated ratios of the expression levels of CD4 to CD8 (CD4/CD8 ratio) in human and common marmoset leukocytes (Figure 5, left panel). CD4/CD8 ratios were significantly higher inhuman leukocytes compared with common marmoset leukocytes (mean 6 sd, 0.5960.22 vs. 20.4960.41, P,0.01). To confirm the difference in CD4/CD8 ratios, we examined the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ in CD3+ T cells by flow cytometric analysis.

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