The initiation and the termination of spindle oscillations [34]. This cortical input

The initiation and the termination of spindle oscillations [34]. This cortical input may conceivably be random in light NREM sleep or be periodic get Licochalcone A following a slow cortical oscillation [48] in the case of spindles arising during slow wave (3d stage of NREM) sleep. Experimental evidence suggests that the spindles instigating cortical excitation of reticular thalamic neurons is most often elicited during the transitionSpindle Power Is Not Affected after Spontaneous KCFigure 5. Grand average of spindle power changes (dark blue line) 6 SD on all KC groups (rows 1?) and individual spindles (5th row) for all subjects. The average change is calculated over the individual spindle frequency band for every subject. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054343.gfrom cortical “down” to cortical “up” state. This may apply to our observations which are made on spontaneous isolated KCs, since human studies have shown that KCs may be isolated down states (Cash et al., 2009). Finally spindles can be induced or modulated locally, but also remotely (hippocampal-frontal dialogue), and vary in density according to sleep pressure and many other factors. A periodic emergence of spindles appears therefore to be the result of an interaction between several cortical and subcortical mechanisms, whose balance may vary in brain space and in sleep time. Spindle periodicity has been shown earlier: Evans and Richardson [49] have reported a periodicity of 3? s by measuring intervals between spindle bursts, which is compatible to our results of the short-term ERD seen in the TFA maps of KCs, especially KC01 group, and in the pattern shown on individual sporadic spindles. Achermann and Borbely [50] have detected this rhythm with FFT analysis. Zygierewicz et al 15481974 [37] also report the same interval between the ERDs before and after the evoked KC.Regarding a possible long-term interaction of spontaneous KCs with sleep spindles, extending to 10?5 s, our data suggest a very small effect detected on group KC01. Compared to the effect of evoked microarousals on sleep spindles reported by Halasz [13], there is no significant similar effect of spontaneous KCs on spindles. Halasz does report a pronounced long-term depression on spindle power of evoked microarousals, including responses of single KC not associated with spindles, but, interestingly, only a slight depression in their KS group, which the author defines as “K-complex followed by or intermingled with 13?4 cps sigma spindle”. Our results for spontaneous KC01, KC10 and KC11 are similar to this long-term slight depression of spindles power for evoked KS group. However, the results of our spontaneous KC00 are different from their evoked single K-complex. As for the shortterm effect, note that in the figures provided by Halasz, an ERD can be also seen almost 3 s post-stimulus. Bastien et al [36] have also examined spindle power before and after evoked KCs. In their data they did not detect differences between 4 seconds pre-stimulus and either short-term, 1.25?.25 s, or long-term, 5.26?.25 s Cucurbitacin I post-stimulus effects. The differences on the methodology of the EEG analysis of these studies do not allow solid conclusions on the possible long-term effects of evoked KCs on sleep spindles and a direct comparison to our data on spontaneous KCs. These differences include our individual spindle frequency approach i.e. the use of a different frequency band as specifically measured for each subject. For example, the 14Hz used by Halasz [13] are not.The initiation and the termination of spindle oscillations [34]. This cortical input may conceivably be random in light NREM sleep or be periodic following a slow cortical oscillation [48] in the case of spindles arising during slow wave (3d stage of NREM) sleep. Experimental evidence suggests that the spindles instigating cortical excitation of reticular thalamic neurons is most often elicited during the transitionSpindle Power Is Not Affected after Spontaneous KCFigure 5. Grand average of spindle power changes (dark blue line) 6 SD on all KC groups (rows 1?) and individual spindles (5th row) for all subjects. The average change is calculated over the individual spindle frequency band for every subject. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054343.gfrom cortical “down” to cortical “up” state. This may apply to our observations which are made on spontaneous isolated KCs, since human studies have shown that KCs may be isolated down states (Cash et al., 2009). Finally spindles can be induced or modulated locally, but also remotely (hippocampal-frontal dialogue), and vary in density according to sleep pressure and many other factors. A periodic emergence of spindles appears therefore to be the result of an interaction between several cortical and subcortical mechanisms, whose balance may vary in brain space and in sleep time. Spindle periodicity has been shown earlier: Evans and Richardson [49] have reported a periodicity of 3? s by measuring intervals between spindle bursts, which is compatible to our results of the short-term ERD seen in the TFA maps of KCs, especially KC01 group, and in the pattern shown on individual sporadic spindles. Achermann and Borbely [50] have detected this rhythm with FFT analysis. Zygierewicz et al 15481974 [37] also report the same interval between the ERDs before and after the evoked KC.Regarding a possible long-term interaction of spontaneous KCs with sleep spindles, extending to 10?5 s, our data suggest a very small effect detected on group KC01. Compared to the effect of evoked microarousals on sleep spindles reported by Halasz [13], there is no significant similar effect of spontaneous KCs on spindles. Halasz does report a pronounced long-term depression on spindle power of evoked microarousals, including responses of single KC not associated with spindles, but, interestingly, only a slight depression in their KS group, which the author defines as “K-complex followed by or intermingled with 13?4 cps sigma spindle”. Our results for spontaneous KC01, KC10 and KC11 are similar to this long-term slight depression of spindles power for evoked KS group. However, the results of our spontaneous KC00 are different from their evoked single K-complex. As for the shortterm effect, note that in the figures provided by Halasz, an ERD can be also seen almost 3 s post-stimulus. Bastien et al [36] have also examined spindle power before and after evoked KCs. In their data they did not detect differences between 4 seconds pre-stimulus and either short-term, 1.25?.25 s, or long-term, 5.26?.25 s post-stimulus effects. The differences on the methodology of the EEG analysis of these studies do not allow solid conclusions on the possible long-term effects of evoked KCs on sleep spindles and a direct comparison to our data on spontaneous KCs. These differences include our individual spindle frequency approach i.e. the use of a different frequency band as specifically measured for each subject. For example, the 14Hz used by Halasz [13] are not.

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