E moment of MTx fluctuates on an average of approximately 45u

E moment of MTx fluctuates on an average of approximately 45u, 60u and 20u with respect to the channel axis when the toxin is bound to Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.3, respectively. The distinct binding orientations must be related to the residues at position 381 of the channel (Figure 1B). For example, the residues Tyr381 in Kv1.1 and His381 in Kv1.3 are bulkier than the residue Val381 in Kv1.2. As a result, MTx binds closer to Kv1.2 than to Kv1.1 and Kv1.3, as illustrated in Figure 6. At the bound state, the COM of 1676428 ?MTx is 27 A from the COM of Kv1.2, whereas the COM of MTx ?is 28 A from the COM of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 (Figure 5). The differences in the size of the residue at position 381 may lead to different shapes on the channel surface, such that the outer vestibule of Kv1.2 provides a better receptor site for MTx. If the channel residue at position 381 22948146 were critical for toxin selectivity, one would expect that MTx should form similar salt bridges with the outer vestibular wall of Kv1.2 and H381V mutant Kv1.3. Following this hypothesis, computational mutagenesis calculations are carried out. Specifically, His381 of Kv1.3 in the MTx-Kv1.3 complex is mutated to valine, corresponding to the residue at position 381 in Kv1.2. The new complex is equilibrated for 10 ns using MD without restraints. The MTx-[H381V] Kv1.3 complex after the equilibration is displayed in Figure S3. A new salt bridge, Arg14-Asp353, not found in the MTx-Kv1.3 complex, is formed. This salt bridge can be considered as equivalent to the Arg14-Asp355 salt-bridge in the MTx-Kv1.2 complex, In addition, Lys7 of MTx is observed to be in close proximity to Asp363 of the mutant Kv1.3, with the average minimum distance ?being ,6 A, consistent with the Lys7-Asp363 salt bridge in the MTx-Kv1.2 complex. Our computational mutagenesis calculations support the critical role of residue 381 in MTx selectivity.ConclusionsThe bound complexes between the scorpion toxin MTx and three voltage-gated potassium channels of the Shaker family (Kv1.1Kv1.3) are predicted using MD simulation as a docking method. The MTx-Kv1.2 complex reveals that the side chain of Lys23 firmly occludes the ion conduction inhibitor conduit of the channel by forming strong electrostatic interactions with the channel selectivity filter (Figure 2). At the same time, MTx forms two additional hydrogen bonds with residues on the outer vestibular wall of Kv1.2. One hydrogen bond (Arg14-Asp355) appears to be stable after its formation at 10 ns, while the second hydrogen bond (Lys7-Asp363) is observed to be unstable and subsequently breaks at 15 ns (Figure 3). This highlights the dynamic nature of toxinchannel interactions. Our model of MTx-Kv1.2 is in agreement with mutagenesis experiments [5]. In the computational model proposed by Yi et al. [17], Lys7 of MTx forms a salt bridge with Asp379, whereas in our model Lys7 is in closer proximity to Asp363. The complexes MTx-Kv1.1 and MTx-Kv1.3 show that two stable hydrogen bonds are formed in both cases, including one inside and the other just outside the selectivity filter (Figure 4). These two hydrogen bonds are sufficient for stabilizing the toxinchannel complex. The PMF profiles constructed show that the binding affinities of MTx to Kv1.1 (IC50 = 6 mM) and Kv1.3 (IC50 = 18 mM) are in the Autophagy micromolar range. Thus, our calculations indicate that MTx is capable of inhibiting Kv1.1 and Kv1.3,Figure 6. The position of MTx (yellow) relative to Kv1.1-Kv1.3 channels. The key residue 381 is highlighted i.E moment of MTx fluctuates on an average of approximately 45u, 60u and 20u with respect to the channel axis when the toxin is bound to Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.3, respectively. The distinct binding orientations must be related to the residues at position 381 of the channel (Figure 1B). For example, the residues Tyr381 in Kv1.1 and His381 in Kv1.3 are bulkier than the residue Val381 in Kv1.2. As a result, MTx binds closer to Kv1.2 than to Kv1.1 and Kv1.3, as illustrated in Figure 6. At the bound state, the COM of 1676428 ?MTx is 27 A from the COM of Kv1.2, whereas the COM of MTx ?is 28 A from the COM of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 (Figure 5). The differences in the size of the residue at position 381 may lead to different shapes on the channel surface, such that the outer vestibule of Kv1.2 provides a better receptor site for MTx. If the channel residue at position 381 22948146 were critical for toxin selectivity, one would expect that MTx should form similar salt bridges with the outer vestibular wall of Kv1.2 and H381V mutant Kv1.3. Following this hypothesis, computational mutagenesis calculations are carried out. Specifically, His381 of Kv1.3 in the MTx-Kv1.3 complex is mutated to valine, corresponding to the residue at position 381 in Kv1.2. The new complex is equilibrated for 10 ns using MD without restraints. The MTx-[H381V] Kv1.3 complex after the equilibration is displayed in Figure S3. A new salt bridge, Arg14-Asp353, not found in the MTx-Kv1.3 complex, is formed. This salt bridge can be considered as equivalent to the Arg14-Asp355 salt-bridge in the MTx-Kv1.2 complex, In addition, Lys7 of MTx is observed to be in close proximity to Asp363 of the mutant Kv1.3, with the average minimum distance ?being ,6 A, consistent with the Lys7-Asp363 salt bridge in the MTx-Kv1.2 complex. Our computational mutagenesis calculations support the critical role of residue 381 in MTx selectivity.ConclusionsThe bound complexes between the scorpion toxin MTx and three voltage-gated potassium channels of the Shaker family (Kv1.1Kv1.3) are predicted using MD simulation as a docking method. The MTx-Kv1.2 complex reveals that the side chain of Lys23 firmly occludes the ion conduction conduit of the channel by forming strong electrostatic interactions with the channel selectivity filter (Figure 2). At the same time, MTx forms two additional hydrogen bonds with residues on the outer vestibular wall of Kv1.2. One hydrogen bond (Arg14-Asp355) appears to be stable after its formation at 10 ns, while the second hydrogen bond (Lys7-Asp363) is observed to be unstable and subsequently breaks at 15 ns (Figure 3). This highlights the dynamic nature of toxinchannel interactions. Our model of MTx-Kv1.2 is in agreement with mutagenesis experiments [5]. In the computational model proposed by Yi et al. [17], Lys7 of MTx forms a salt bridge with Asp379, whereas in our model Lys7 is in closer proximity to Asp363. The complexes MTx-Kv1.1 and MTx-Kv1.3 show that two stable hydrogen bonds are formed in both cases, including one inside and the other just outside the selectivity filter (Figure 4). These two hydrogen bonds are sufficient for stabilizing the toxinchannel complex. The PMF profiles constructed show that the binding affinities of MTx to Kv1.1 (IC50 = 6 mM) and Kv1.3 (IC50 = 18 mM) are in the micromolar range. Thus, our calculations indicate that MTx is capable of inhibiting Kv1.1 and Kv1.3,Figure 6. The position of MTx (yellow) relative to Kv1.1-Kv1.3 channels. The key residue 381 is highlighted i.

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