T of cannabinoid administered (mg per animal) 10.5 mg THC 10.5 mg THC

T of cannabinoid administered (mg per animal) 10.5 mg THC 10.5 mg THC*Animals received 75 mg of cannabinoid-loaded MPs every 5 days (corresponding to a total amount of 300 mg of microparticles per animal). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054795.tCannabinoid Microparticles Inhibit Tumor GrowthFigure 4. Cannabinoid loaded microparticles activate apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and angiogenesis of U87 MG cell-derived tumour xenografts. Effect of THC-loaded MP, CBD-loaded MP and a mixture of THC- and CBD-loaded MP on cell proliferation (as determined by KI67 immunostaining; A), apoptosis (as determined by TUNEL; B) and angiogeneis (as determined by CD31 immnunostaining; C) of U87MG cellderived tumor xenografts. Values on the lower right corner of each panel correspond to the percentage of KI67-positive cells relative to the total number of nuclei in each section 6 s.d. (A), the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells relative to the total number of nuclei in each section 6 s.d. (B) or the CD31-stained area normalized to the total number of nuclei in each section (mean fold change 6 s.d.; C) (10 sections of 3 different tumors from each condition were analyzed; ** p,0.01 from vehicle-treated tumors; # p,0.05 from CBD-loaded MP-treated tumors. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054795.gsusceptible of being treated with drug-loaded MPs [33?1]. This anticancer action of cannabinois is based on the ability of these compounds to enhance apoptosis, inhibit proliferation of cancer cells and inhibit tumour angiogenesis. Data presented here confirm that these mechanisms of action are activated in glioma Tramiprosate web xenografts upon administration of MPs loaded with THC, CBD or the combination of the two types of MPs. Although additional research should clarify whether a similar effect can be produced in other types of tumour xenografts, and whether MPs loaded with THC, CBD or its combination are equally efficacious in different tumour types and sub-types, these observations strongly support that microencapsulation could be a promising strategy to optimize the utilization of PD1-PDL1 inhibitor 1 web cannabinoids as anticancer agents.Of interest, we have recently found that the combined administration of THC or THC + CBD [18] (but not CBD, S Torres, M Lorente and G Velasco unpublished observations) with temozolomide synergistically reduces the growth of glioma xenografts. 10457188 The findings presented here now provide a rational for the design of novel anticancer strategies based on the use of cannabinoid-loaded MPs in combinational therapies.ConclusionsData presented in this manuscript show for the first time that in vivo administration of microencapsulated cannabinoids efficiently reduces tumor growth thus providing a proof of concept for theCannabinoid Microparticles Inhibit Tumor Growthutilization of this formulation in cannabinoid-based anti-cancer therapies.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: GV AITS ML DH. Performed the experiments: DH ML MEG-A ST EG-T MRA JM. Analyzed the data: DH ML MEG-A GV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MEG-A MRA JM AITS. Wrote the paper: GV DH ML.AcknowledgmentsWe thank the “Luis Bru” UCM Microscopy Research Support Centre for valuable technical and professional assistance.
Illicit stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) temporarily increase alertness, mood, and euphoria. These effects arise from their acute mechanism of action on the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine.T of cannabinoid administered (mg per animal) 10.5 mg THC 10.5 mg THC*Animals received 75 mg of cannabinoid-loaded MPs every 5 days (corresponding to a total amount of 300 mg of microparticles per animal). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054795.tCannabinoid Microparticles Inhibit Tumor GrowthFigure 4. Cannabinoid loaded microparticles activate apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and angiogenesis of U87 MG cell-derived tumour xenografts. Effect of THC-loaded MP, CBD-loaded MP and a mixture of THC- and CBD-loaded MP on cell proliferation (as determined by KI67 immunostaining; A), apoptosis (as determined by TUNEL; B) and angiogeneis (as determined by CD31 immnunostaining; C) of U87MG cellderived tumor xenografts. Values on the lower right corner of each panel correspond to the percentage of KI67-positive cells relative to the total number of nuclei in each section 6 s.d. (A), the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells relative to the total number of nuclei in each section 6 s.d. (B) or the CD31-stained area normalized to the total number of nuclei in each section (mean fold change 6 s.d.; C) (10 sections of 3 different tumors from each condition were analyzed; ** p,0.01 from vehicle-treated tumors; # p,0.05 from CBD-loaded MP-treated tumors. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054795.gsusceptible of being treated with drug-loaded MPs [33?1]. This anticancer action of cannabinois is based on the ability of these compounds to enhance apoptosis, inhibit proliferation of cancer cells and inhibit tumour angiogenesis. Data presented here confirm that these mechanisms of action are activated in glioma xenografts upon administration of MPs loaded with THC, CBD or the combination of the two types of MPs. Although additional research should clarify whether a similar effect can be produced in other types of tumour xenografts, and whether MPs loaded with THC, CBD or its combination are equally efficacious in different tumour types and sub-types, these observations strongly support that microencapsulation could be a promising strategy to optimize the utilization of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.Of interest, we have recently found that the combined administration of THC or THC + CBD [18] (but not CBD, S Torres, M Lorente and G Velasco unpublished observations) with temozolomide synergistically reduces the growth of glioma xenografts. 10457188 The findings presented here now provide a rational for the design of novel anticancer strategies based on the use of cannabinoid-loaded MPs in combinational therapies.ConclusionsData presented in this manuscript show for the first time that in vivo administration of microencapsulated cannabinoids efficiently reduces tumor growth thus providing a proof of concept for theCannabinoid Microparticles Inhibit Tumor Growthutilization of this formulation in cannabinoid-based anti-cancer therapies.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: GV AITS ML DH. Performed the experiments: DH ML MEG-A ST EG-T MRA JM. Analyzed the data: DH ML MEG-A GV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MEG-A MRA JM AITS. Wrote the paper: GV DH ML.AcknowledgmentsWe thank the “Luis Bru” UCM Microscopy Research Support Centre for valuable technical and professional assistance.
Illicit stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) temporarily increase alertness, mood, and euphoria. These effects arise from their acute mechanism of action on the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine.

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