Panels show duration of scratching response and right panels show total

Panels show duration of scratching response and right panels show total Title Loaded From File number of scratching bouts for bombesin (A,B), GRP (C,D), NMB (E,F) and morphine (G,H). Mice were observed immediately after the intrathecal injections up to 1 h. Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6). Symbols represent different dosing conditions. An asterisk (*) represents significant difference from the vehicle controls (open bars; 0 mg) (P,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gResultsFigure 1 illustrates the duration and magnitude of scratching induced by intrathecal bombesin (0.01?.3 nmol), GRP (0.01?0.3 nmol), NMB (0.1? nmol) and morphine (0.3? nmol) in mice observed for 1 h. Bombesin-related peptides, but not morphine, evoked scratching within 2 min after their administration. Mice treated with bombesin, GRP and NMB displayed other behaviors such as incessant facial grooming with forepaws and oral preening of the tail in addition to the scratching of the flank area by hindpaws as previously described [7,24]. Bombesin elicited scratching in a dose-dependent manner [F(4, 25) = 63.2, p,0.05], and the scratching was maintained during the entire observation period of 1 h. GRP elicited scratching in dosedependent [F(4, 25) = 11.8, p,0.05] and time-dependent [F(5, 150) = 7.3, p,0.05] manners lasting for 40 min. NMB evoked scratching in dose-dependent [F(3, 20) = 12.2, p,0.05] and timedependent [F(5, 120) = 9.2, p,0.05] manners for 20 min. Minimum dose required to produce maximum scratching for bombesin and GRP was 0.1 nmol whereas for NMB, it was 1 nmol. At all doses tested, morphine-induced scratching was not significantly different from the vehicle condition [F(3,20 ) = 2, p.0.05]. Figure 2 compares the dose response curves of scratching induced by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides and morphine. Bombesin and GRP showed similar potency to evoke scratching. However, the magnitude of scratching induced by bombesin was higher than that of GRP. NMB induced mild scratching and was less potent than bombesin and GRP. Morphine-induced scratching could not be distinguished from the vehicle. Figure 3 illustrates the effects of intrathecally administered GRPr antagonist RC-3095 (0.03?.3 nmol) and NMBr antagonist PD168368 (1? nmol) as a 10 min pretreatment on GRP and NMB-induced scratching, 23148522 respectively. RC-3095 at 0.03 and 0.1 nmol, dose-dependently antagonized GRP-induced scratchingas indicated by a 3 to 10 fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRP. At 0.3 nmol of RC-3095, general suppression of scratching behavior was observed at all doses of GRP (0.1? nmol). PD168368 dose-dependently antagonized NMB-induced scratching as indicated by a 3 to 10-fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of NMB. Vehicle pretreatment did not change the dose response curves for GRP or NMB. Figure 4 illustrates the effects of intrathecally administered PD168368 (3 nmol) on GRP-induced scratching and RC-3095 (0.1 nmol) on NMB-induced scratching as a 10 min pretreatment. Unlike RC-3095, PD168368 failed to cause a rightward shift in theFigure 2. Comparison of dose response curves of intrathecal bombesin, GRP, NMB and morphine-induced scratching in mice. Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed for 1 h. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gFigure 3. Effects of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on intrathecal GRP- and NMB-induced scratching, respectively. Title Loaded From File Antagonists were administered.Panels show duration of scratching response and right panels show total number of scratching bouts for bombesin (A,B), GRP (C,D), NMB (E,F) and morphine (G,H). Mice were observed immediately after the intrathecal injections up to 1 h. Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6). Symbols represent different dosing conditions. An asterisk (*) represents significant difference from the vehicle controls (open bars; 0 mg) (P,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gResultsFigure 1 illustrates the duration and magnitude of scratching induced by intrathecal bombesin (0.01?.3 nmol), GRP (0.01?0.3 nmol), NMB (0.1? nmol) and morphine (0.3? nmol) in mice observed for 1 h. Bombesin-related peptides, but not morphine, evoked scratching within 2 min after their administration. Mice treated with bombesin, GRP and NMB displayed other behaviors such as incessant facial grooming with forepaws and oral preening of the tail in addition to the scratching of the flank area by hindpaws as previously described [7,24]. Bombesin elicited scratching in a dose-dependent manner [F(4, 25) = 63.2, p,0.05], and the scratching was maintained during the entire observation period of 1 h. GRP elicited scratching in dosedependent [F(4, 25) = 11.8, p,0.05] and time-dependent [F(5, 150) = 7.3, p,0.05] manners lasting for 40 min. NMB evoked scratching in dose-dependent [F(3, 20) = 12.2, p,0.05] and timedependent [F(5, 120) = 9.2, p,0.05] manners for 20 min. Minimum dose required to produce maximum scratching for bombesin and GRP was 0.1 nmol whereas for NMB, it was 1 nmol. At all doses tested, morphine-induced scratching was not significantly different from the vehicle condition [F(3,20 ) = 2, p.0.05]. Figure 2 compares the dose response curves of scratching induced by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides and morphine. Bombesin and GRP showed similar potency to evoke scratching. However, the magnitude of scratching induced by bombesin was higher than that of GRP. NMB induced mild scratching and was less potent than bombesin and GRP. Morphine-induced scratching could not be distinguished from the vehicle. Figure 3 illustrates the effects of intrathecally administered GRPr antagonist RC-3095 (0.03?.3 nmol) and NMBr antagonist PD168368 (1? nmol) as a 10 min pretreatment on GRP and NMB-induced scratching, 23148522 respectively. RC-3095 at 0.03 and 0.1 nmol, dose-dependently antagonized GRP-induced scratchingas indicated by a 3 to 10 fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRP. At 0.3 nmol of RC-3095, general suppression of scratching behavior was observed at all doses of GRP (0.1? nmol). PD168368 dose-dependently antagonized NMB-induced scratching as indicated by a 3 to 10-fold parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of NMB. Vehicle pretreatment did not change the dose response curves for GRP or NMB. Figure 4 illustrates the effects of intrathecally administered PD168368 (3 nmol) on GRP-induced scratching and RC-3095 (0.1 nmol) on NMB-induced scratching as a 10 min pretreatment. Unlike RC-3095, PD168368 failed to cause a rightward shift in theFigure 2. Comparison of dose response curves of intrathecal bombesin, GRP, NMB and morphine-induced scratching in mice. Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed for 1 h. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gFigure 3. Effects of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on intrathecal GRP- and NMB-induced scratching, respectively. Antagonists were administered.

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