Portant to note that HR declined to control levels by the

Portant to note that HR declined to control levels by the end of the study when LV dysfunction was most pronounced. ThisLV Myocyte/Chamber Function in HyperthyroidismTable 2. LV hemodynamics.Control SBP (mmHg) DBP (mmHg) LV ESP (mmHg) LV EDP (mmHg) dP/dT Max (mmHg/sec) dP/dT Min (mmHg/sec) Tau (msec) Wall Stress (ED), kdyne/ cm2 Wall Stress (ES), kdyne/cm2 156 (15) 84 (12) 160 (16) 8 (5) 9921 (1980)Hyperthyroid 134 (12) 75 (16) 123 (11) 12 (6) 7291 (708)p-Value ,0.002 0.20 ,0.001 0.138 ,0.001 ,0.001 0.004 0.005 ,0.28998 (1844) 24844 (683) 11 (4) 12.8 (7) 137.7 (32) 15 (5) 26.2 (12) 194.5 (33)Values are means (SD). SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LV ESP, left ventricular end systolic pressure; LV EDP, left ventricular end diastolic pressure; dP/dT Max, maximal rate of pressure development; dP/ dT Min, maximal rate of pressure decline; Tau, time constant of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation; Wall Stress ED, wall stress at end diastole; Wall Stress ES, wall stress at end systole; Meridional Wall stress calculated using previously described methods [23]. N = 12213/group for all measurements except SBP, DBP (N = 9 11 in control and treated, respectively) and wall stress (N = 11 10 in control and treated respectively). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046655.treduction of TH-induced tachycardia observed after 8 months likely represents the onset of adrenergic decompensation. Tachycardia is a widely used diagnostic marker in the identification of hyperthyroidism. Our findings suggest that HR may not always be a reliable predictor of hyperthyroidism, especially in the setting of advanced cardiac disease caused by sustained TH excess. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a paradoxical mismatch between global cardiac function and individual myocyte function in the setting of prolonged hyperthyroidism. Several previous reports lend credence to the idea that global cardiac function 15755315 is not a consistent indicator of individual myocyte contractile function [34?9]. Although the exact etiology of this discrepancy is unknown, several myocyte and non-myocyte factors likely contribute. Alterations in excitation-contraction coupling, Ca2+ handling properties, neurohumoral activation, oxidative stress, vascularity and blood flow, cell metabolism, cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), fibrotic deposition, and myocyte remodeling have all been implicated. While we cannot exclude the aforementioned parameters as contributing to the discrepancy, myocyte necrosis or apoptosis appear unlikely. Areas of cell loss and replacement fibrosis were not observed, reducing the likelihood of myocyte necrosis. Except with extreme changes, such as in the peri-infarct area after acute myocardial infarction, apoptosis appears to predominantly 1326631 occur in non-myocytes during HF and cardiac dysfunction [40]. When myocyte loss occurs by apoptosis, fibrous deposition/replacement is not ASP-015K chemical information present and would be difficult to document over such a long treatment period [41]. Based on tissue morphology and the fact that THs tend to inhibit apoptosis [42], there is little reason to suspect that apoptosis accounts for MedChemExpress Methionine enkephalin significant loss of contractile cells or fibrotic deposition in the current setting. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of diminished coronary blood flow, it is unlikely in the current experimental setting. THs are potent stimulators of coronary angiogenesis and blood flow in the setting of hyperthyroidism. THs have been shown to increas.Portant to note that HR declined to control levels by the end of the study when LV dysfunction was most pronounced. ThisLV Myocyte/Chamber Function in HyperthyroidismTable 2. LV hemodynamics.Control SBP (mmHg) DBP (mmHg) LV ESP (mmHg) LV EDP (mmHg) dP/dT Max (mmHg/sec) dP/dT Min (mmHg/sec) Tau (msec) Wall Stress (ED), kdyne/ cm2 Wall Stress (ES), kdyne/cm2 156 (15) 84 (12) 160 (16) 8 (5) 9921 (1980)Hyperthyroid 134 (12) 75 (16) 123 (11) 12 (6) 7291 (708)p-Value ,0.002 0.20 ,0.001 0.138 ,0.001 ,0.001 0.004 0.005 ,0.28998 (1844) 24844 (683) 11 (4) 12.8 (7) 137.7 (32) 15 (5) 26.2 (12) 194.5 (33)Values are means (SD). SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LV ESP, left ventricular end systolic pressure; LV EDP, left ventricular end diastolic pressure; dP/dT Max, maximal rate of pressure development; dP/ dT Min, maximal rate of pressure decline; Tau, time constant of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation; Wall Stress ED, wall stress at end diastole; Wall Stress ES, wall stress at end systole; Meridional Wall stress calculated using previously described methods [23]. N = 12213/group for all measurements except SBP, DBP (N = 9 11 in control and treated, respectively) and wall stress (N = 11 10 in control and treated respectively). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046655.treduction of TH-induced tachycardia observed after 8 months likely represents the onset of adrenergic decompensation. Tachycardia is a widely used diagnostic marker in the identification of hyperthyroidism. Our findings suggest that HR may not always be a reliable predictor of hyperthyroidism, especially in the setting of advanced cardiac disease caused by sustained TH excess. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a paradoxical mismatch between global cardiac function and individual myocyte function in the setting of prolonged hyperthyroidism. Several previous reports lend credence to the idea that global cardiac function 15755315 is not a consistent indicator of individual myocyte contractile function [34?9]. Although the exact etiology of this discrepancy is unknown, several myocyte and non-myocyte factors likely contribute. Alterations in excitation-contraction coupling, Ca2+ handling properties, neurohumoral activation, oxidative stress, vascularity and blood flow, cell metabolism, cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), fibrotic deposition, and myocyte remodeling have all been implicated. While we cannot exclude the aforementioned parameters as contributing to the discrepancy, myocyte necrosis or apoptosis appear unlikely. Areas of cell loss and replacement fibrosis were not observed, reducing the likelihood of myocyte necrosis. Except with extreme changes, such as in the peri-infarct area after acute myocardial infarction, apoptosis appears to predominantly 1326631 occur in non-myocytes during HF and cardiac dysfunction [40]. When myocyte loss occurs by apoptosis, fibrous deposition/replacement is not present and would be difficult to document over such a long treatment period [41]. Based on tissue morphology and the fact that THs tend to inhibit apoptosis [42], there is little reason to suspect that apoptosis accounts for significant loss of contractile cells or fibrotic deposition in the current setting. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of diminished coronary blood flow, it is unlikely in the current experimental setting. THs are potent stimulators of coronary angiogenesis and blood flow in the setting of hyperthyroidism. THs have been shown to increas.

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