Gth NlFoxA cDNA, we used a RACE Kit (CLONTECH, Japan). Specific

Gth NlFoxA cDNA, we used a RACE Kit (CLONTECH, Japan). Specific primers for the 59and 39- Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) were designed based on homologous PCR fragments. The specific primers CGA CTT CAA TTC CTT GGC ATC AGG TG and GTT TAG GAT CTC GTC CAG GTC GAT G were used for 59 ACE, while GTA CCC CAG CTC AGA AGG ATG GTA C2.4 Expression and Refolding of CSPSlitPCR was performed using the specific primers, 59- CTG CCA TGG CAC ACC CAC ATG AG TCC-39 and 59- TTG AGT CTC GAG GTG TTT AAC GGA TTT G -39 to obtain the open reading frame (ORF) of the CSPSlit. In order to facilitate subcloning of the ORF into 15755315 the expression vector, the restriction sites of NcoI and XhoI were separately BIBS39 site introduced into the forward and reverse primers. PCR products, purified by agarose gel electrophoresis, were digested with Nco I and Xho I enzymes and ligated into the Nco I/Xho I-digested pET-28a(+) (Novagen) to construct the expression vector pET-CSPSlit. The resultant plasmid was transformed into the competent E. coli BL21 (DE3). A single positive bacterial colony, which was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, was inoculated into LB medium containing ampicillin (100 mg/ml) and grown overnight. The seed culture was diluted with 1:100 of LB medium and grown at 37uC to the optical density of A600 = 0.4, and the cells were induced by addition of 0.5 mmol/L isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). After 6 h incubation at 28uC, cultures were harvested by centrifugation and lysed by the lysis solution (10 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl and 50 mM NaH2PO4). After sonication, the supernatants were recovered by centrifugation and subjected to the Ni2+-NTA column to purify the recombinant protein. The recombinant protein was refold with the approach of Tsumoto et al with some modified [47]. Briey, 10 ml recombinant protein was solubilized in denaturant buffer (6 M guanidine hydrochloride, 200 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, and 1 mM EDTA at pH 8.3). Denaturant was slowly removed by a series of overnight equilibrations with buffers of successive decreasing guanidine hydrochloride concentration. The guanidine hydrochloride concentration was reduced as follows: 6 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.5 M, 0 M. The 2 M guanidine hydrochloride equilibration buffer was supplemented with 400 mM L-arginine and 375 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as folding additives. After the finalCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 1. Nucleotide and deduced amino sequences of CSPSlit. The predicted signal peptide is underlined. The asterisk marks the translationtermination codon. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.gCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of CSP amino acid sequences. Bootstrap support values based on 1000 replicates are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.gCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 3. Northern blot analysis of RNA coding for CSPSlit in different tissues. (a): The recovery and integrity of each RNA were assessed from the 18S rRNA 370-86-5 site pattern; (b): 1, antennas; 2, de-antennated heads; 3, foreleg; 4, mesopedes; 5, metapedes; 6, thoraces; 7, wings; 8, abdomens. (A): female; (B): male. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.governight dialysis with buffer containing no denaturant, the sample was removed from the dialysis buffer and freeze-drying at 290uC, then stored at 280uC. The concentration of refolded CSPSlit was established with the Bradford method that a calculation based on the absorbance at 280 nm.Gth NlFoxA cDNA, we used a RACE Kit (CLONTECH, Japan). Specific primers for the 59and 39- Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) were designed based on homologous PCR fragments. The specific primers CGA CTT CAA TTC CTT GGC ATC AGG TG and GTT TAG GAT CTC GTC CAG GTC GAT G were used for 59 ACE, while GTA CCC CAG CTC AGA AGG ATG GTA C2.4 Expression and Refolding of CSPSlitPCR was performed using the specific primers, 59- CTG CCA TGG CAC ACC CAC ATG AG TCC-39 and 59- TTG AGT CTC GAG GTG TTT AAC GGA TTT G -39 to obtain the open reading frame (ORF) of the CSPSlit. In order to facilitate subcloning of the ORF into 15755315 the expression vector, the restriction sites of NcoI and XhoI were separately introduced into the forward and reverse primers. PCR products, purified by agarose gel electrophoresis, were digested with Nco I and Xho I enzymes and ligated into the Nco I/Xho I-digested pET-28a(+) (Novagen) to construct the expression vector pET-CSPSlit. The resultant plasmid was transformed into the competent E. coli BL21 (DE3). A single positive bacterial colony, which was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, was inoculated into LB medium containing ampicillin (100 mg/ml) and grown overnight. The seed culture was diluted with 1:100 of LB medium and grown at 37uC to the optical density of A600 = 0.4, and the cells were induced by addition of 0.5 mmol/L isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). After 6 h incubation at 28uC, cultures were harvested by centrifugation and lysed by the lysis solution (10 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl and 50 mM NaH2PO4). After sonication, the supernatants were recovered by centrifugation and subjected to the Ni2+-NTA column to purify the recombinant protein. The recombinant protein was refold with the approach of Tsumoto et al with some modified [47]. Briey, 10 ml recombinant protein was solubilized in denaturant buffer (6 M guanidine hydrochloride, 200 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, and 1 mM EDTA at pH 8.3). Denaturant was slowly removed by a series of overnight equilibrations with buffers of successive decreasing guanidine hydrochloride concentration. The guanidine hydrochloride concentration was reduced as follows: 6 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.5 M, 0 M. The 2 M guanidine hydrochloride equilibration buffer was supplemented with 400 mM L-arginine and 375 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as folding additives. After the finalCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 1. Nucleotide and deduced amino sequences of CSPSlit. The predicted signal peptide is underlined. The asterisk marks the translationtermination codon. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.gCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of CSP amino acid sequences. Bootstrap support values based on 1000 replicates are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.gCharacterisation Binding Properties of CSPSlitFigure 3. Northern blot analysis of RNA coding for CSPSlit in different tissues. (a): The recovery and integrity of each RNA were assessed from the 18S rRNA pattern; (b): 1, antennas; 2, de-antennated heads; 3, foreleg; 4, mesopedes; 5, metapedes; 6, thoraces; 7, wings; 8, abdomens. (A): female; (B): male. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047611.governight dialysis with buffer containing no denaturant, the sample was removed from the dialysis buffer and freeze-drying at 290uC, then stored at 280uC. The concentration of refolded CSPSlit was established with the Bradford method that a calculation based on the absorbance at 280 nm.

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