Eurons from E13.5 embryos of wild-type and A/WySnJ mice (Baffrm

Eurons from E13.5 embryos of wild-type and A/WySnJ mice (Baffrm/m mice) were cultured for 7 days under nutrient-limiting conditions, and then cell viability was measured by counting Map2+ viable neurons. Representative pictures are shown. Scale bar = 100 mm. (B) Reduced Akt phosphorylation in Baffrm/m neurons. After 7 days of culture, wild-type and Baffrm/m neurons were assayed for the levels of total and phospho-Akt by immunoblot analysis. b-actin is shown as a loading control. (C) The effects of blocking BAFF-R on neuronal survival. Neurons from E13.5 embryos of wild-type 10457188 and Baffrm/m mice were cultured with TACI-Ig or control human-Ig for 7 days under nutrient-limiting conditions, and then Map2+ viable neurons were counted. Data are representative of three separate experiments. *:p,0.05, #:p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070924.gcords were prepared using a Leica 3050 S cryostat (Thermo Shandon, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) and then mounted onto Teriparatide Superfrost slides (Matsunami Glass Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan). For immunohistochemistry, the sections were permeabilized with 0.2 TBST for 10 min and pretreated with blocking buffer (2 normal rabbit serum for the anti-BAFF antibody and 2 normal donkey serum for the anti AFF-R antibody) for 1 h at RT to block non-specific IgG binding. The following antibodies were used: rabbit anti AFF-R polyclonal antibodies (50 mg/ml; Abcam), goat anti-BAFF polyclonal antibodies (50 mg/ml; R D Systems), mouse anti-SMI32 monoclonal antibody (1:200; Abcam), and Alexa FlourH 488-conjugated mouse anti-GFAP monoclonal antibody (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA). Rabbit polyclonal IgG (50 mg/ml; Southern Biotechnology Associates, Birmingham, AL, USA) and goat polyclonal IgG (50 mg/ml; Southern Biotechnology Associates) were used as control antibodies for BAFF-R and BAFF expression, respectively.The following secondary antibodies were applied overnight at 4uC: Cy5-conjugated F(ab’) 2 fragment rabbit anti-goat IgG (1:500; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories), Cy5-conjugated F(ab’) 2 donkey anti-rabbit IgG (1:500; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories), and Alexa FlourH488 onjugated anti-mouse IgG (1:500; Title Loaded From File Invitrogen). The sections were then washed three times in 0.2 TBST for 5 min and mounted with VECTA-SHIELD Mounting Medium containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories). Fluorescence signals were captured with an LSM 510 confocal microscope (Zeiss). For lectin staining of the spinal cords, sections were permeabilized with 0.2 TBST for 10 min and then incubated with FITC-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin (Sigma) diluted 1:750 in PBS overnight at 4uC. The sections were washed three times in 0.2 TBST for 5 min and mounted with VECTASHIELD Mounting Medium containing DAPI (VectorNeuroprotection by B Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)Figure 4. mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice exhibit accelerated disease progression and reduced survival. (A) Changes in the mean body weight of mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice (n = 20) and mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice (n = 19). (B) Time course of motor performance using the hanging-wire test in which mSOD1/ Baffrm/m mice performed significantly worse than mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice. (n = 20 and n = 19, respectively) (C) Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Defects in BAFF-R signaling shortened the survival of mSOD1 mice (log rank test for survival, p = 0.0000342) (n = 27 for mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice and n = 35 for mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice) (D) mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice had significantly fewer myelinated axons than control mSOD.Eurons from E13.5 embryos of wild-type and A/WySnJ mice (Baffrm/m mice) were cultured for 7 days under nutrient-limiting conditions, and then cell viability was measured by counting Map2+ viable neurons. Representative pictures are shown. Scale bar = 100 mm. (B) Reduced Akt phosphorylation in Baffrm/m neurons. After 7 days of culture, wild-type and Baffrm/m neurons were assayed for the levels of total and phospho-Akt by immunoblot analysis. b-actin is shown as a loading control. (C) The effects of blocking BAFF-R on neuronal survival. Neurons from E13.5 embryos of wild-type 10457188 and Baffrm/m mice were cultured with TACI-Ig or control human-Ig for 7 days under nutrient-limiting conditions, and then Map2+ viable neurons were counted. Data are representative of three separate experiments. *:p,0.05, #:p,0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070924.gcords were prepared using a Leica 3050 S cryostat (Thermo Shandon, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) and then mounted onto Superfrost slides (Matsunami Glass Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan). For immunohistochemistry, the sections were permeabilized with 0.2 TBST for 10 min and pretreated with blocking buffer (2 normal rabbit serum for the anti-BAFF antibody and 2 normal donkey serum for the anti AFF-R antibody) for 1 h at RT to block non-specific IgG binding. The following antibodies were used: rabbit anti AFF-R polyclonal antibodies (50 mg/ml; Abcam), goat anti-BAFF polyclonal antibodies (50 mg/ml; R D Systems), mouse anti-SMI32 monoclonal antibody (1:200; Abcam), and Alexa FlourH 488-conjugated mouse anti-GFAP monoclonal antibody (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA). Rabbit polyclonal IgG (50 mg/ml; Southern Biotechnology Associates, Birmingham, AL, USA) and goat polyclonal IgG (50 mg/ml; Southern Biotechnology Associates) were used as control antibodies for BAFF-R and BAFF expression, respectively.The following secondary antibodies were applied overnight at 4uC: Cy5-conjugated F(ab’) 2 fragment rabbit anti-goat IgG (1:500; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories), Cy5-conjugated F(ab’) 2 donkey anti-rabbit IgG (1:500; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories), and Alexa FlourH488 onjugated anti-mouse IgG (1:500; Invitrogen). The sections were then washed three times in 0.2 TBST for 5 min and mounted with VECTA-SHIELD Mounting Medium containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories). Fluorescence signals were captured with an LSM 510 confocal microscope (Zeiss). For lectin staining of the spinal cords, sections were permeabilized with 0.2 TBST for 10 min and then incubated with FITC-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin (Sigma) diluted 1:750 in PBS overnight at 4uC. The sections were washed three times in 0.2 TBST for 5 min and mounted with VECTASHIELD Mounting Medium containing DAPI (VectorNeuroprotection by B Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)Figure 4. mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice exhibit accelerated disease progression and reduced survival. (A) Changes in the mean body weight of mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice (n = 20) and mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice (n = 19). (B) Time course of motor performance using the hanging-wire test in which mSOD1/ Baffrm/m mice performed significantly worse than mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice. (n = 20 and n = 19, respectively) (C) Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Defects in BAFF-R signaling shortened the survival of mSOD1 mice (log rank test for survival, p = 0.0000342) (n = 27 for mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice and n = 35 for mSOD1/Baffr+/+ mice) (D) mSOD1/Baffrm/m mice had significantly fewer myelinated axons than control mSOD.

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