Mals. Ligand binding triggers proteolytic cleavages of Notch receptors, releasing the

Mals. Ligand binding triggers proteolytic cleavages of Notch receptors, releasing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to translocate into the nucleus, where NICD associates with the transcription factor RBP-J and recruits other co-activators to 3687-18-1 web activate target gene expression [28]. Kwon et al [29] have shown that the Jagged1-mediated Notch signaling promote adult neovascularization by regulating the function of EPCs. We have also found that Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization, migration and function of EPCs through the expression of CXCR4 [30]. However, the roles of the Notch signaling pathway in different subpopulations of EPCs, namely EEPCs and EOCs, have not yet been revealed. In this study, we accessed this question by using in vitro cultured EPCs and RBP-J knockout mice. Our data have suggested that the Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the functions of EEPCs and EOCs in different ways.Results Characterization of in vitro cultured EEPCs and EOCsIn freshly isolated BM mononuclear cells, cells with the EEPC phenotypes (CD34+/CD133+/VEGFR2+) accounted for only 0.08 of total population of cells. After being cultured for 6 days in the EPC medium, this percentage reached 8.95 , and kept increasing up to 50.59 on day 10 of the culture (Figure 1A, upper panels). The absolute number of cells increased in a similar way (Figure 1B). The increase of cell percentage was accompanied by remarkable up-regulations of VEGFR2, CD133 and CD34 (Figure 1A, lower panels). Under microscope, these cells had a spindle-like shape, consistent with the phenotypes of EEPCs [31]. In contrast to the spindle-like EEPCs, EOC culture generated cells with a cobblestone appearance after being cultured for 6? weeks (Figure S1). These cells expressed mature EC markers CD31/VEGFR2 but did not express the progenitor cell markers CD133 and CD34 (Figure 1C). These phenotypes were consistent with EOCs [32]. We preliminarily examined the expression of the Notch signalrelated genes in EEPCs and EOCs by using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that most of the genes we tested were expressed in both EEPCs and EOCs, but the two types of EPCs had different expression patterns in the Notch signal-related molecules (Figure 1D).different proliferating rate between the two sub-populations, after the addition of GSI into the culture. As shown in Figure 2A, blocking the Notch signaling pathway in EEPCs resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation. However, in contrast, blocking Notch signaling increased the proliferation of EOCs (Figure 2A, lower). Direct cell counting revealed the same results: Notch blockade led to decreased number of EEPCs but increased number of EOCs after culture (Figure 2B). We then assessed the CI-1011 effect of Notch blockade on the migration of EEPCs and EOCs by using a transwell assay. EEPCs and EOCs were cultured in the presence of GSI or DMSO for 72 h. And cells were seeded at a density of 1.56105 per well in the upper compartment and were cultured at 37uC for 14 h. Cells in the lower membrane were counted. The results showed that blocking of Notch signaling by GSI led to decreased migration of EEPCs in response to SDF-1a, whereas the same treatment resulted in increased migration of EOCs in response to SDF-1a (Figure 2C and 2D). Previous data including ours have shown that Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization most likely through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression [30]. We therefore examined.Mals. Ligand binding triggers proteolytic cleavages of Notch receptors, releasing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to translocate into the nucleus, where NICD associates with the transcription factor RBP-J and recruits other co-activators to activate target gene expression [28]. Kwon et al [29] have shown that the Jagged1-mediated Notch signaling promote adult neovascularization by regulating the function of EPCs. We have also found that Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization, migration and function of EPCs through the expression of CXCR4 [30]. However, the roles of the Notch signaling pathway in different subpopulations of EPCs, namely EEPCs and EOCs, have not yet been revealed. In this study, we accessed this question by using in vitro cultured EPCs and RBP-J knockout mice. Our data have suggested that the Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the functions of EEPCs and EOCs in different ways.Results Characterization of in vitro cultured EEPCs and EOCsIn freshly isolated BM mononuclear cells, cells with the EEPC phenotypes (CD34+/CD133+/VEGFR2+) accounted for only 0.08 of total population of cells. After being cultured for 6 days in the EPC medium, this percentage reached 8.95 , and kept increasing up to 50.59 on day 10 of the culture (Figure 1A, upper panels). The absolute number of cells increased in a similar way (Figure 1B). The increase of cell percentage was accompanied by remarkable up-regulations of VEGFR2, CD133 and CD34 (Figure 1A, lower panels). Under microscope, these cells had a spindle-like shape, consistent with the phenotypes of EEPCs [31]. In contrast to the spindle-like EEPCs, EOC culture generated cells with a cobblestone appearance after being cultured for 6? weeks (Figure S1). These cells expressed mature EC markers CD31/VEGFR2 but did not express the progenitor cell markers CD133 and CD34 (Figure 1C). These phenotypes were consistent with EOCs [32]. We preliminarily examined the expression of the Notch signalrelated genes in EEPCs and EOCs by using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that most of the genes we tested were expressed in both EEPCs and EOCs, but the two types of EPCs had different expression patterns in the Notch signal-related molecules (Figure 1D).different proliferating rate between the two sub-populations, after the addition of GSI into the culture. As shown in Figure 2A, blocking the Notch signaling pathway in EEPCs resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation. However, in contrast, blocking Notch signaling increased the proliferation of EOCs (Figure 2A, lower). Direct cell counting revealed the same results: Notch blockade led to decreased number of EEPCs but increased number of EOCs after culture (Figure 2B). We then assessed the effect of Notch blockade on the migration of EEPCs and EOCs by using a transwell assay. EEPCs and EOCs were cultured in the presence of GSI or DMSO for 72 h. And cells were seeded at a density of 1.56105 per well in the upper compartment and were cultured at 37uC for 14 h. Cells in the lower membrane were counted. The results showed that blocking of Notch signaling by GSI led to decreased migration of EEPCs in response to SDF-1a, whereas the same treatment resulted in increased migration of EOCs in response to SDF-1a (Figure 2C and 2D). Previous data including ours have shown that Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization most likely through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression [30]. We therefore examined.

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