Tion that often results from peripheral nerve injury. Several lines of

Tion that often results from peripheral nerve injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by the interaction between immune cells and neurons plays an important role in neuropathic pain [1,2]. In response to peripheral nerve injury, peripheral immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, Tlymphocytes and mast cells, infiltrate into the injured nerve and become activated. Pronociceptive inflammatory mediators released from the activated immune cells can induce the sensitization of nociceptors and increase the excitability of nociceptive primary afferent neurons (peripheral sensitization). In the spinal cord, glial cells such as purchase BTZ-043 microglia and astrocytes receive signals from the injured peripheral neurons and become activated, which cause the generation of synaptic facilitation and enhanced responsiveness ofnociceptive dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization) [3]. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that peripheral nerve injury induces the infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the spinal cord, which contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain [4?], although the details and mechanisms still remain unclear. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel, acts as a sensor for reactive oxygen species (ROS) [9,10]. TRPM2 is highly 256373-96-3 web expressed in the brain and broadly in other tissues [11,12], but is also expressed abundantly in immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Tlymphocytes and microglia [13?5]. Recent studies have focused extensively on the roles of TRPM2 expressed in immune cells. TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ influx in monocytes induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the infiltration of neutrophils, which contribute to the exacerbation of inflammaTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in Paintion [16?8]. TRPM2 expressed in T-lymphocytes contributes to the cell proliferation and the production/release of proinflammatory cytokines [19,20]. In dendritic cells, TRPM2 acts a lysosomal Ca2+-release channel that promotes chemokine responsiveness and cell migration [21]. By contrast, TRPM2-knockout (TRPM2-KO) mice are susceptible to bacterial infection due to impaired inflammatory responses and uncontrolled bacterial growth [22]. In this context, TRPM2 in phagocytic cells prevents nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived ROS production through depolarization of the plasma membrane and thereby protects against inflammation and tissue injury [23]. Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPM2 expressed in immune cells plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses. Recently, we reported that TRPM2 expressed in macrophages and spinal microglia contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and neuropathic pain through the aggravation of peripheral and central pronociceptive inflammatory responses in mice [24]. However, previous experiments using TRPM2-KO mice did not determine whether TRPM2 expressed in peripheral immune cells or spinal microglia is more relevant to neuropathic pain. The present study further explored the role of TRPM2 expressed in peripheral 23977191 immune cells in neuropathic pain by generating bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice by crossing wildtype (WT) and TRPM2-KO mice with green fluorescence protein-positive (GFP+) BM transplantation. We then examined the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, and observed Iba1-positive (Iba1+) macrophages/micro.Tion that often results from peripheral nerve injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by the interaction between immune cells and neurons plays an important role in neuropathic pain [1,2]. In response to peripheral nerve injury, peripheral immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, Tlymphocytes and mast cells, infiltrate into the injured nerve and become activated. Pronociceptive inflammatory mediators released from the activated immune cells can induce the sensitization of nociceptors and increase the excitability of nociceptive primary afferent neurons (peripheral sensitization). In the spinal cord, glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes receive signals from the injured peripheral neurons and become activated, which cause the generation of synaptic facilitation and enhanced responsiveness ofnociceptive dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization) [3]. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that peripheral nerve injury induces the infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the spinal cord, which contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain [4?], although the details and mechanisms still remain unclear. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel, acts as a sensor for reactive oxygen species (ROS) [9,10]. TRPM2 is highly expressed in the brain and broadly in other tissues [11,12], but is also expressed abundantly in immune cells, including monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Tlymphocytes and microglia [13?5]. Recent studies have focused extensively on the roles of TRPM2 expressed in immune cells. TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ influx in monocytes induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the infiltration of neutrophils, which contribute to the exacerbation of inflammaTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in Paintion [16?8]. TRPM2 expressed in T-lymphocytes contributes to the cell proliferation and the production/release of proinflammatory cytokines [19,20]. In dendritic cells, TRPM2 acts a lysosomal Ca2+-release channel that promotes chemokine responsiveness and cell migration [21]. By contrast, TRPM2-knockout (TRPM2-KO) mice are susceptible to bacterial infection due to impaired inflammatory responses and uncontrolled bacterial growth [22]. In this context, TRPM2 in phagocytic cells prevents nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-derived ROS production through depolarization of the plasma membrane and thereby protects against inflammation and tissue injury [23]. Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPM2 expressed in immune cells plays a critical role in immune and inflammatory responses. Recently, we reported that TRPM2 expressed in macrophages and spinal microglia contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and neuropathic pain through the aggravation of peripheral and central pronociceptive inflammatory responses in mice [24]. However, previous experiments using TRPM2-KO mice did not determine whether TRPM2 expressed in peripheral immune cells or spinal microglia is more relevant to neuropathic pain. The present study further explored the role of TRPM2 expressed in peripheral 23977191 immune cells in neuropathic pain by generating bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice by crossing wildtype (WT) and TRPM2-KO mice with green fluorescence protein-positive (GFP+) BM transplantation. We then examined the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, and observed Iba1-positive (Iba1+) macrophages/micro.

Leave a Reply