Intrathecally 10 min prior to GRP or NMB. Mice were observed immediately

Intrathecally 10 min prior to GRP or NMB. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of GRP or NMB up to 1 h. Top panel shows changes in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching following RC3095 pretreatment (A). Bottom panel shows changes in the dose response curve of NMB-induced scratching following PD168368 pretreatment (B). Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed across 1 h. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gRole of Spinal GRPr and NMBr in Itch ScratchingFigure 5. Effects of individual or co-administration of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on the dose response curve of bombesin-induced scratching. Antagonists were administered intrathecally 10 min prior to bombesin. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of bombesin up to 1 h. Each value represents Mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gFigure 4. Cross examination of the effects of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on intrathecal GRPand NMB-induced scratching. Antagonists were administered intrathecally 10 min prior to GRP or NMB. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of GRP or NMB up to 1 h. Top panel shows changes in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching following pretreatment with active doses of PD168368 and RC-3095 (A). Bottom panel shows changes in the dose response curve of NMB-induced scratching following pretreatment with active doses of RC-3095 and PD168368 (B). Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed across 1 h. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.g(0.1 nmol) required to produce maximum response did not change between antagonist and vehicle pretreatment groups. Figure 6 illustrates the effect of 0.3 nmol of RC-3095 on scratching-induced by bombesin-related peptides and motor function. RC-3095 significantly attenuated scratching induced by 0.1 nmol GRP [t(10) = 4.2, p,0.05], 1 nmol NMB [t(10) = 2.4, p,0.05] and 0.1 nmol bombesin [t(10) = 7.2, p,0.05]. Before the drug administration, all mice were able to balance on the 3PO web rotarod at 15 RPM for approximately 180 sec. Mice treated with 0.3 nmol RC-3095 spent significantly less time on the rotarod at 15, 20, 25 and 30 RPM as compared to those which received the intrathecal injection of a vehicle [F(1,90) = 27.8, p,0.05].DiscussionItch and pain are two independent somatosensory perceptions that elicit Anlotinib distinct behavioral responses but share many similarities in their neurotransmission. Itch signaling is thought to be driven by the activation of primary afferent nerve fibers or pruriceptors which send an input to a subpopulation of neurons in the superficial and deep dorsal horn in the spinal cord [25,26]. In some cases such as those of neurogenic or psychogenic origin, itch can also be originated in the spinal cord [2]. Interestingly, the subpopulation of neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn that is excited by pruritogens, also responds to noxious nociceptive stimuli in rodents and primates [27?9]. Recently it was shown that selective ablation of bombesin-recognized neurons in lamina 1 of dorsal spinal cord markedly attenuated scratching evoked by several pruritogens but did not affect nociceptive responses in mice [30]. This ra.Intrathecally 10 min prior to GRP or NMB. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of GRP or NMB up to 1 h. Top panel shows changes in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching following RC3095 pretreatment (A). Bottom panel shows changes in the dose response curve of NMB-induced scratching following PD168368 pretreatment (B). Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed across 1 h. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gRole of Spinal GRPr and NMBr in Itch ScratchingFigure 5. Effects of individual or co-administration of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on the dose response curve of bombesin-induced scratching. Antagonists were administered intrathecally 10 min prior to bombesin. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of bombesin up to 1 h. Each value represents Mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.gFigure 4. Cross examination of the effects of GRPr antagonist RC-3095 and NMBr antagonist PD168368 on intrathecal GRPand NMB-induced scratching. Antagonists were administered intrathecally 10 min prior to GRP or NMB. Mice were observed immediately after the administration of GRP or NMB up to 1 h. Top panel shows changes in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching following pretreatment with active doses of PD168368 and RC-3095 (A). Bottom panel shows changes in the dose response curve of NMB-induced scratching following pretreatment with active doses of RC-3095 and PD168368 (B). Each value represents mean 6 SEM (n = 6) for number of scratching bouts observed across 1 h. Different symbols represent different dosing conditions. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067422.g(0.1 nmol) required to produce maximum response did not change between antagonist and vehicle pretreatment groups. Figure 6 illustrates the effect of 0.3 nmol of RC-3095 on scratching-induced by bombesin-related peptides and motor function. RC-3095 significantly attenuated scratching induced by 0.1 nmol GRP [t(10) = 4.2, p,0.05], 1 nmol NMB [t(10) = 2.4, p,0.05] and 0.1 nmol bombesin [t(10) = 7.2, p,0.05]. Before the drug administration, all mice were able to balance on the rotarod at 15 RPM for approximately 180 sec. Mice treated with 0.3 nmol RC-3095 spent significantly less time on the rotarod at 15, 20, 25 and 30 RPM as compared to those which received the intrathecal injection of a vehicle [F(1,90) = 27.8, p,0.05].DiscussionItch and pain are two independent somatosensory perceptions that elicit distinct behavioral responses but share many similarities in their neurotransmission. Itch signaling is thought to be driven by the activation of primary afferent nerve fibers or pruriceptors which send an input to a subpopulation of neurons in the superficial and deep dorsal horn in the spinal cord [25,26]. In some cases such as those of neurogenic or psychogenic origin, itch can also be originated in the spinal cord [2]. Interestingly, the subpopulation of neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn that is excited by pruritogens, also responds to noxious nociceptive stimuli in rodents and primates [27?9]. Recently it was shown that selective ablation of bombesin-recognized neurons in lamina 1 of dorsal spinal cord markedly attenuated scratching evoked by several pruritogens but did not affect nociceptive responses in mice [30]. This ra.

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