In gallbladder gallbladder mucosa (n = 67) mucosan(n = 259)Postoperative and Pathological Diagnosis

In gallbladder gallbladder mucosa (n = 67) mucosan(n = 259)Postoperative and Pathological Diagnosis Gallstone MedChemExpress PS-1145 Cholesterol Stones Pigment Stones Mixed Stones Polypoid Lesion Cholesterol Polyp: Inflammatory Polyp Gallbladder Adenomyomatosis Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Histological Analysis of Cholecystitis Inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate Mild Moderate Severe Degree of Fibrosis Mild Moderate Severe Thickness of Muscular Layer Mild Moderate Severe Adipose Tissue Deposition Mild Moderate Severe Degree of Hyperplasia Diffuse Focal Dysplasia Low-grade High-grade Metaplasia Immunoreactive score of iNOS Immunoreactive score of ROS *p,0.01, m p,0.05. NS: not significant. N/A: not applicable. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.t003 3(4.48) 0(0.00) 9(13.43) 6.0661.59 5.0162.01 8(3.09) 0(0.00) 14(5.41) 5.1261.34 3.9961.87 25(37.31) 42(62.69) 115(44.40) 144(55.60) 33(49.25) 27(40.30) 7(10.45) 166(64.09) 73(28.19) 20(7.72) 30(44.78) 22(32.84) 15(22.39) 120(46.33) 103(39.77) 36(13.90) 45(67.16) 14(20.90) 8(11.94) 188(72.59) 54(20.85) 17(6.56) 31(46.27) 22(32.84) 14(20.90) 131(50.58) 89(34.36) 39(15.06) 10:2 35(52.24) 5(7.46) 45:2 92(35.52) 12(4.63) 14(25.45) 8(14.55) 33(60.00) 68(32.08) 35(16.51) 109(51.42)p valueNS NS NSNS 0.012m NSNSNSNSNSNSNS0.022m 0.012m 0.000*colonies were identified upon culture in 55 (16.87 ) patients. Among them, 52 (77.61 ) patients were both positive in staining and culture. In PCR test for Helicobacter-16s rRNA gene, 67 (20.55 ) patients were positive. From all the gallbladder specimens, only the positive samples which detected by staining or culture were positive in nest PCR test. All samples positive for first-step amplicon were also positive for the nested PCR. Finally, H. pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55 (n = 67) of the cholecystitis patients (Peptide M Figure 1 and 2). Thesepatients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005), gastric ulcer (p = 0.042), duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026) and a higher positive rate of Helicobacter pylori (p,0.05) in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder (Table 2). Of the 67 patients (20.55 ) who were positive in H. pylori 16s rRNA detection in gallbladder mucosa, amplications of 16s rRNA in their gastric or duodenal specimens were also succeed in 42 patients (62.69 ). These were 30 of 45 (66.67 )Helicobacter pylori and Chronic Cholecystitispatients with chronic gastritis, 7 of 11 (63.64 ) patients with gastric ulcer and 5 of 8 (62.50 ) patients with duodenal ulcer (Figure 2). Consequently, we check the amplified PCR products by direct sequencing and BLAST search and confirmed that each sequence was 96?9 similar to a known H. pylori 16s rRNA gene registered in GenBank (Figure 3). No other kinds of Helicobacter species such as Helicobacter bilis, Helicobacter hepaticus or Helicobacter pullorum could be detected by PCR. Moreover, our data also revealed that H. pylori-16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric (or duodenal) mucosa acquired from the same individual patient had identical sequences (Figure 4). The results of comparison of pathological features between the two groups in gallbladder mucosa were demonstrated in Table 3. Higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012) and metaplasia (p = 0.022) were detected in H. pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (Figure 5). The metaplastic lesions were predominantly of pyloric type (21 cases, 84 from the.In gallbladder gallbladder mucosa (n = 67) mucosan(n = 259)Postoperative and Pathological Diagnosis Gallstone Cholesterol Stones Pigment Stones Mixed Stones Polypoid Lesion Cholesterol Polyp: Inflammatory Polyp Gallbladder Adenomyomatosis Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Histological Analysis of Cholecystitis Inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate Mild Moderate Severe Degree of Fibrosis Mild Moderate Severe Thickness of Muscular Layer Mild Moderate Severe Adipose Tissue Deposition Mild Moderate Severe Degree of Hyperplasia Diffuse Focal Dysplasia Low-grade High-grade Metaplasia Immunoreactive score of iNOS Immunoreactive score of ROS *p,0.01, m p,0.05. NS: not significant. N/A: not applicable. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.t003 3(4.48) 0(0.00) 9(13.43) 6.0661.59 5.0162.01 8(3.09) 0(0.00) 14(5.41) 5.1261.34 3.9961.87 25(37.31) 42(62.69) 115(44.40) 144(55.60) 33(49.25) 27(40.30) 7(10.45) 166(64.09) 73(28.19) 20(7.72) 30(44.78) 22(32.84) 15(22.39) 120(46.33) 103(39.77) 36(13.90) 45(67.16) 14(20.90) 8(11.94) 188(72.59) 54(20.85) 17(6.56) 31(46.27) 22(32.84) 14(20.90) 131(50.58) 89(34.36) 39(15.06) 10:2 35(52.24) 5(7.46) 45:2 92(35.52) 12(4.63) 14(25.45) 8(14.55) 33(60.00) 68(32.08) 35(16.51) 109(51.42)p valueNS NS NSNS 0.012m NSNSNSNSNSNSNS0.022m 0.012m 0.000*colonies were identified upon culture in 55 (16.87 ) patients. Among them, 52 (77.61 ) patients were both positive in staining and culture. In PCR test for Helicobacter-16s rRNA gene, 67 (20.55 ) patients were positive. From all the gallbladder specimens, only the positive samples which detected by staining or culture were positive in nest PCR test. All samples positive for first-step amplicon were also positive for the nested PCR. Finally, H. pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55 (n = 67) of the cholecystitis patients (Figure 1 and 2). Thesepatients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005), gastric ulcer (p = 0.042), duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026) and a higher positive rate of Helicobacter pylori (p,0.05) in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder (Table 2). Of the 67 patients (20.55 ) who were positive in H. pylori 16s rRNA detection in gallbladder mucosa, amplications of 16s rRNA in their gastric or duodenal specimens were also succeed in 42 patients (62.69 ). These were 30 of 45 (66.67 )Helicobacter pylori and Chronic Cholecystitispatients with chronic gastritis, 7 of 11 (63.64 ) patients with gastric ulcer and 5 of 8 (62.50 ) patients with duodenal ulcer (Figure 2). Consequently, we check the amplified PCR products by direct sequencing and BLAST search and confirmed that each sequence was 96?9 similar to a known H. pylori 16s rRNA gene registered in GenBank (Figure 3). No other kinds of Helicobacter species such as Helicobacter bilis, Helicobacter hepaticus or Helicobacter pullorum could be detected by PCR. Moreover, our data also revealed that H. pylori-16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric (or duodenal) mucosa acquired from the same individual patient had identical sequences (Figure 4). The results of comparison of pathological features between the two groups in gallbladder mucosa were demonstrated in Table 3. Higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012) and metaplasia (p = 0.022) were detected in H. pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (Figure 5). The metaplastic lesions were predominantly of pyloric type (21 cases, 84 from the.

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