Connecting the loss of pVHL function with an enhanced IGF-IR/Akt

Connecting the loss of pVHL RE640 biological activity function with an enhanced IGF-IR/Akt/MMP-2 signaling pathway in RCC [20]. Consistent with these reports, our VHL-KO mice had enhanced IGF-IR expression in the liver and an enhanced interaction between IGF-IR and RACK1. In addition, p-Akt expression was also enhanced in VHL-KO livers. Based on the previous reports and our data, we postulated that hepatic VHL deletion buy Emixustat (hydrochloride) activated an IGF-IR pathway through an accelerated complex formation with RACK1 and contributed to severe hypoglycemia. Indeed, administrating an IGF-IR antagonist resulted in complete suppression of hypoglycemic progression in VHL-KO mice. InVHL Deletion Causes HypoglycemiaFigure 6. IGF-IR inhibition attenuates hypoglycemia. (A) An IGF-IR antagonist did not affect blood glucose levels in control mice (left panel, n = 3). Compared to buffer treated-VHL-KO control mice (blue line, n = 5; day3 vs. day9, *p = 0.040), administration of an IGF-IR 11967625 antagonist (red line, n = 5) resulted in significant recovery from hypoglycemia (day 3 vs. day 9, p = 0.121: N.S.; right panel). (B) In contrast, the blood glucose levels in VHLKO mice treated with a linear IGF-IR antagonist (green line, n = 5) were significantly decreased during the experiment, like those of buffer-treated mice (day 3 vs. day 7, **p = 0.037; day 3 vs. day 9, ***p = 0.0025). Linear IGF-IR antagonist had different protein structures but had identical amino acid sequences, and therefore, could not bind to IGF-IR. (C) For IGF-IR antagonist-treated VHL-KO mice, hepatic glycogen accumulation was attenuated compared to that in the livers of 23148522 linear IGF-IR antagonist-treated and buffer-treated mice. (D) In IGF-IR antagonist-treated VHL-KO mice, glucose levels rapidly decreased after discontinuing the IGF-IR antagonist treatment (****p = 0.023). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069139.gVHL Deletion Causes HypoglycemiaFigure 7. GLUT1 was markedly enhanced in VHL-KO livers. Expressions of GLUT1 (top panel) and GLUT3 (bottom panel), particularly GLUT1, are enhanced in VHL-KO livers. GLUT2 expression level in VHL-KO livers was comparable to that in the control livers (middle panel). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069139.gaddition to maintaining the blood glucose levels, hepatic histological changes (i.e., accumulation of PAS positive substances like glycogen) were also attenuated in VHL-KO mice. These results also strongly supported our hypothesis. The reciprocal changes between VHL deletion and IGF-IR upregulation were confirmed with an in vitro experiment using human liver Huh-7 cells, where VHL knockdown cells had reciprocally increased IGF-IR expression. IGF-I induces the expressions of HIF-1a and HIF-1 targets (i.e., GLUT1 or VEGF) in human colon cancer cells [30] and rat cerebral cortex [31]. This was independent of hypoxia-induced inhibition of ubiquitination [30], as Chavez et al. reported that a neutralizing anti-IGF-I antibody did not affect hypoxia-inducedHIF-1a accumulation [31]. Thus, IGF-I and hypoxia activate the HIF system through independent mechanisms. In addition, these studies reported that inhibiting IGF-IR abrogated HIF-1 accumulation, which demonstrated a requirement for signal transduction via IGF-IR. In our previous study, the protein levels of HIF-1a and HIF-2a were increased in VHL-KO mice kidneys [5]. In addition, in this study, HIF-1a upregulation were confirmed with an in vitro experiment using human liver Huh-7 cells by VHL knockdown. Furthermore, in this study, IGF-IR expression was als.Connecting the loss of pVHL function with an enhanced IGF-IR/Akt/MMP-2 signaling pathway in RCC [20]. Consistent with these reports, our VHL-KO mice had enhanced IGF-IR expression in the liver and an enhanced interaction between IGF-IR and RACK1. In addition, p-Akt expression was also enhanced in VHL-KO livers. Based on the previous reports and our data, we postulated that hepatic VHL deletion activated an IGF-IR pathway through an accelerated complex formation with RACK1 and contributed to severe hypoglycemia. Indeed, administrating an IGF-IR antagonist resulted in complete suppression of hypoglycemic progression in VHL-KO mice. InVHL Deletion Causes HypoglycemiaFigure 6. IGF-IR inhibition attenuates hypoglycemia. (A) An IGF-IR antagonist did not affect blood glucose levels in control mice (left panel, n = 3). Compared to buffer treated-VHL-KO control mice (blue line, n = 5; day3 vs. day9, *p = 0.040), administration of an IGF-IR 11967625 antagonist (red line, n = 5) resulted in significant recovery from hypoglycemia (day 3 vs. day 9, p = 0.121: N.S.; right panel). (B) In contrast, the blood glucose levels in VHLKO mice treated with a linear IGF-IR antagonist (green line, n = 5) were significantly decreased during the experiment, like those of buffer-treated mice (day 3 vs. day 7, **p = 0.037; day 3 vs. day 9, ***p = 0.0025). Linear IGF-IR antagonist had different protein structures but had identical amino acid sequences, and therefore, could not bind to IGF-IR. (C) For IGF-IR antagonist-treated VHL-KO mice, hepatic glycogen accumulation was attenuated compared to that in the livers of 23148522 linear IGF-IR antagonist-treated and buffer-treated mice. (D) In IGF-IR antagonist-treated VHL-KO mice, glucose levels rapidly decreased after discontinuing the IGF-IR antagonist treatment (****p = 0.023). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069139.gVHL Deletion Causes HypoglycemiaFigure 7. GLUT1 was markedly enhanced in VHL-KO livers. Expressions of GLUT1 (top panel) and GLUT3 (bottom panel), particularly GLUT1, are enhanced in VHL-KO livers. GLUT2 expression level in VHL-KO livers was comparable to that in the control livers (middle panel). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069139.gaddition to maintaining the blood glucose levels, hepatic histological changes (i.e., accumulation of PAS positive substances like glycogen) were also attenuated in VHL-KO mice. These results also strongly supported our hypothesis. The reciprocal changes between VHL deletion and IGF-IR upregulation were confirmed with an in vitro experiment using human liver Huh-7 cells, where VHL knockdown cells had reciprocally increased IGF-IR expression. IGF-I induces the expressions of HIF-1a and HIF-1 targets (i.e., GLUT1 or VEGF) in human colon cancer cells [30] and rat cerebral cortex [31]. This was independent of hypoxia-induced inhibition of ubiquitination [30], as Chavez et al. reported that a neutralizing anti-IGF-I antibody did not affect hypoxia-inducedHIF-1a accumulation [31]. Thus, IGF-I and hypoxia activate the HIF system through independent mechanisms. In addition, these studies reported that inhibiting IGF-IR abrogated HIF-1 accumulation, which demonstrated a requirement for signal transduction via IGF-IR. In our previous study, the protein levels of HIF-1a and HIF-2a were increased in VHL-KO mice kidneys [5]. In addition, in this study, HIF-1a upregulation were confirmed with an in vitro experiment using human liver Huh-7 cells by VHL knockdown. Furthermore, in this study, IGF-IR expression was als.

Leave a Reply