Of important pathologies, the body needs approximately 1 mg of iron per

Of important pathologies, the body needs approximately 1 mg of iron per day to maintain iron balance. Nonheme iron exists in two main forms, Fe(III) (theLack of Hemopexin Results in Duodenal Iron Loadferric form) and Fe(II) (the ferrous form). Most dietary iron is nonheme iron, generally found in foods of vegetal origin. Before absorption through the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), Fe(III) in the diet must be reduced to Fe(II) at the apical surface of enterocytes by the ferrireductase duodenal cytochrome-b (Dcytb). Once in the cytosol, iron can be stored in ferritin (Ft) or exported. The protein, poly (rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) is involved in the translocation pathway of iron to the iron storage Ft protein, while at the basolateral membrane iron is transported out of the enterocyte into the portal blood circulation by the iron-export protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) [1]. Iron exported by Fpn1 is then oxidised by hephaestin (Heph) and bound by transferrin (Tf) in the circulation. The transferrin receptor (TfR1), located at the basal membrane of enterocytes, could eventually take up the circulating Tf-bound iron, transporting it back in duodenal enterocytes. Another source of dietary iron is heme. Heme results from the breakdown of hemoglobin and myoglobin found in meat products. Heme represents the most important source of dietary iron in meat-eating animals, accounting for by one-third of ingested iron in Western diets and up to two-thirds of absorbed body iron. Although the molecule(s) mediating duodenal brush order enterocyte heme uptake has not yet been clearly MedChemExpress 4EGI-1 identified, there is considerable evidence to suggest that uptake occurs via a receptor-mediated endocytotic pathway or by the proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein-1 (PCFT/HCP1), expressed at high levels in the duodenum [1]. Once in the cytosol, heme is catabolised by heme oxygenase (HO), giving rise to iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Moreover, the enterocytes express some heme exporters, such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) [2] and feline leukaemia virus subgroup C receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) [3,4], although their function in duodenal heme metabolism has not been described so far. Inside the enterocytes heme controls several mechanisms, acting both as a prosthetic group 23148522 in hemoproteins, such as cytochromes, and as a regulator of gene transcription. The regulation of iron absorption in the intestine is finely tuned in order Anlotinib response to iron need in the organism and to iron deposits in body tissues. Indeed, the process is adjusted according to both the global body iron status and the local iron status in the absorptive enterocytes. A complex network of proteins that responds to and integrates systemic and local signals is responsible for this homeostatic regulation of dietary iron assimilation, ensuring sufficient iron uptake and avoiding toxic iron accumulation. The hepatic hormone hepcidin (Hepc), the hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs), the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) and the iron storage proteins ferritins are the main factors for the regulation of systemic iron homoeostasis and cellular local iron balance, respectively [5,6]. Hepc and HIF, in particular, have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the modulation of iron uptake from dietary sources and transfer to the organism to meet body iron requirements. Hepc is a negative regulator of the Fpn1 protein located on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes [7]. Hepc.Of important pathologies, the body needs approximately 1 mg of iron per day to maintain iron balance. Nonheme iron exists in two main forms, Fe(III) (theLack of Hemopexin Results in Duodenal Iron Loadferric form) and Fe(II) (the ferrous form). Most dietary iron is nonheme iron, generally found in foods of vegetal origin. Before absorption through the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), Fe(III) in the diet must be reduced to Fe(II) at the apical surface of enterocytes by the ferrireductase duodenal cytochrome-b (Dcytb). Once in the cytosol, iron can be stored in ferritin (Ft) or exported. The protein, poly (rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) is involved in the translocation pathway of iron to the iron storage Ft protein, while at the basolateral membrane iron is transported out of the enterocyte into the portal blood circulation by the iron-export protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) [1]. Iron exported by Fpn1 is then oxidised by hephaestin (Heph) and bound by transferrin (Tf) in the circulation. The transferrin receptor (TfR1), located at the basal membrane of enterocytes, could eventually take up the circulating Tf-bound iron, transporting it back in duodenal enterocytes. Another source of dietary iron is heme. Heme results from the breakdown of hemoglobin and myoglobin found in meat products. Heme represents the most important source of dietary iron in meat-eating animals, accounting for by one-third of ingested iron in Western diets and up to two-thirds of absorbed body iron. Although the molecule(s) mediating duodenal brush order enterocyte heme uptake has not yet been clearly identified, there is considerable evidence to suggest that uptake occurs via a receptor-mediated endocytotic pathway or by the proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein-1 (PCFT/HCP1), expressed at high levels in the duodenum [1]. Once in the cytosol, heme is catabolised by heme oxygenase (HO), giving rise to iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Moreover, the enterocytes express some heme exporters, such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) [2] and feline leukaemia virus subgroup C receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) [3,4], although their function in duodenal heme metabolism has not been described so far. Inside the enterocytes heme controls several mechanisms, acting both as a prosthetic group 23148522 in hemoproteins, such as cytochromes, and as a regulator of gene transcription. The regulation of iron absorption in the intestine is finely tuned in response to iron need in the organism and to iron deposits in body tissues. Indeed, the process is adjusted according to both the global body iron status and the local iron status in the absorptive enterocytes. A complex network of proteins that responds to and integrates systemic and local signals is responsible for this homeostatic regulation of dietary iron assimilation, ensuring sufficient iron uptake and avoiding toxic iron accumulation. The hepatic hormone hepcidin (Hepc), the hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs), the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) and the iron storage proteins ferritins are the main factors for the regulation of systemic iron homoeostasis and cellular local iron balance, respectively [5,6]. Hepc and HIF, in particular, have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the modulation of iron uptake from dietary sources and transfer to the organism to meet body iron requirements. Hepc is a negative regulator of the Fpn1 protein located on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes [7]. Hepc.

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