He “counter-culture”, and have entrenched associations with cannabis use and cultivation

He “counter-culture”, and have entrenched associations with cannabis use and cultivation, particularly using outdoor methods. Only seizures containing at least 2 g of green plant material (GPM) were eligible for analysis; those containing tobacco were rejected. Of the 200 seizures obtained in sealed exhibit bags, 195 (97.5 ) contained one piece of GPM, 4 (2 ) contained two pieces of GPM (2 ) and 1 (0.5 ) contained 3 pieces of GPM, resulting in a total of n = 206 samples for analysis. These are referred to as “Cannabis Cautioning” samples. GPM obtained during NSW Um. Plates were incubated at 0 37 C in 5 CO2 for four different police cannabis crop eradication operations between February and May, 2012. Samples were collected from thirteen different outdoor soil-grown cannabis crops (size from a dozen to 500 plants) raided during police operations against commercial growing interests on the rural mid-northern NSW coast, a prominent cannabis cultivation area. The thirteen indoor soil-grown crops (size of 100 to 300 plants) were obtained during police operations in urban Sydney. Together these indoor and outdoor larger scale seizures are referred to as “Known Provenance” samples.Sample StorageStorage and analysis of all samples was undertaken in a secure laboratory in the Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Sydney. On receipt, samples were photographed and weighed and stored at 16985061 220uC in a locked freezer.Sample PreparationAs Cannabis Cautioning samples were not uniform in form and appearance, plant material used for analysis was selected from the female buds of cannabis samples to minimise variation due to sampling bias. The extraction procedure used was based on a validated protocol [30]. Samples were then dried for 24 h in a 35uC forced ventilation oven. Dried samples were 498-02-2 site crumbed, ground and mixed. 200 mg of this fine powder were weighed in a glass vial and extracted with 10 mL of a mixture of methanol/ chloroform (v/v: 9/1) by sonication for 30 min. The extract was filtered and appropriately diluted in an amber vial. A 100 mL aliquot of the dilution was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and redissolved in 100 mL of a mixture of water/acetonitrile (v/v: 5/5) containing diazepam (50 mg/L) as an internal standard. Two separate extractions were performed on each sample, and these were separately assayed and compared.Materials and Methods Sample AcquisitionTwo separate groups of cannabis seizures were analysed, comprising: (i) cannabis seizures confiscated by NSW Police between October 9, 2010 and October 19, 2011, as part of the Cannabis Cautioning Scheme. Under this scheme, adults detected by police using or in possession of not more than 15 g of dried cannabis and/or equipment for using the cannabis may receive a formal police caution rather than face criminal charges and court proceedings. As these seizures are not required for evidentiary purposes but destroyed by police, permission was received from NSW Police to analyse themChromatographic AnalysisAnalysis of cannabinoid content was undertaken using high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) using the method of De Backer et al. [30] with slight modification. The modified method was validated (for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery) according to the currently accepted USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for bioanalytical method validation [31]. The calibration range was linear from 2 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml, and cannabinoid concentrations greater than 100 mg/ml were diluted to ensu.He “counter-culture”, and have entrenched associations with cannabis use and cultivation, particularly using outdoor methods. Only seizures containing at least 2 g of green plant material (GPM) were eligible for analysis; those containing tobacco were rejected. Of the 200 seizures obtained in sealed exhibit bags, 195 (97.5 ) contained one piece of GPM, 4 (2 ) contained two pieces of GPM (2 ) and 1 (0.5 ) contained 3 pieces of GPM, resulting in a total of n = 206 samples for analysis. These are referred to as “Cannabis Cautioning” samples. GPM obtained during NSW police cannabis crop eradication operations between February and May, 2012. Samples were collected from thirteen different outdoor soil-grown cannabis crops (size from a dozen to 500 plants) raided during police operations against commercial growing interests on the rural mid-northern NSW coast, a prominent cannabis cultivation area. The thirteen indoor soil-grown crops (size of 100 to 300 plants) were obtained during police operations in urban Sydney. Together these indoor and outdoor larger scale seizures are referred to as “Known Provenance” samples.Sample StorageStorage and analysis of all samples was undertaken in a secure laboratory in the Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Sydney. On receipt, samples were photographed and weighed and stored at 16985061 220uC in a locked freezer.Sample PreparationAs Cannabis Cautioning samples were not uniform in form and appearance, plant material used for analysis was selected from the female buds of cannabis samples to minimise variation due to sampling bias. The extraction procedure used was based on a validated protocol [30]. Samples were then dried for 24 h in a 35uC forced ventilation oven. Dried samples were crumbed, ground and mixed. 200 mg of this fine powder were weighed in a glass vial and extracted with 10 mL of a mixture of methanol/ chloroform (v/v: 9/1) by sonication for 30 min. The extract was filtered and appropriately diluted in an amber vial. A 100 mL aliquot of the dilution was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and redissolved in 100 mL of a mixture of water/acetonitrile (v/v: 5/5) containing diazepam (50 mg/L) as an internal standard. Two separate extractions were performed on each sample, and these were separately assayed and compared.Materials and Methods Sample AcquisitionTwo separate groups of cannabis seizures were analysed, comprising: (i) cannabis seizures confiscated by NSW Police between October 9, 2010 and October 19, 2011, as part of the Cannabis Cautioning Scheme. Under this scheme, adults detected by police using or in possession of not more than 15 g of dried cannabis and/or equipment for using the cannabis may receive a formal police caution rather than face criminal charges and court proceedings. As these seizures are not required for evidentiary purposes but destroyed by police, permission was received from NSW Police to analyse themChromatographic AnalysisAnalysis of cannabinoid content was undertaken using high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) using the method of De Backer et al. [30] with slight modification. The modified method was validated (for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery) according to the currently accepted USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for bioanalytical method validation [31]. The calibration range was linear from 2 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml, and cannabinoid concentrations greater than 100 mg/ml were diluted to ensu.

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